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Notice of Request for Comments: Scope of the Study on the Impact of Automated Vehicle Technologies on Workforce

American Government Special Collections Reference Desk

American Government

Notice of Request for Comments: Scope of the Study on the Impact of Automated Vehicle Technologies on Workforce

Finch Fulton
U.S. Department of Transportation
9 October 2018

[Federal Register Volume 83, Number 195 (Tuesday, October 9, 2018)]
[Pages 50747-50749]
From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office [www.gpo.gov]
[FR Doc No: 2018-21842]



Office of the Secretary

[Docket No. DOT-OST-2018-0150]

Notice of Request for Comments: Scope of the Study on the Impact 
of Automated Vehicle Technologies on Workforce

AGENCY: Office of the Secretary (OST), U.S. Department of 
Transportation (DOT).

ACTION: Notice of request for comments.


SUMMARY: OST is announcing a request for information to solicit comment 
and feedback on the scope of the congressionally-required comprehensive 
analysis of the impact of automated vehicle technologies on workforce. 
This study will be conducted by DOT in consultation with the Department 
of Labor to provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of [Advanced 
Driver Assist Systems] ADAS and [Highly Automated Vehicles] HAV 
technologies on drivers and operators of commercial motor vehicle, 
including the potential for any labor displacement. DOT will also 
coordinate this initiative with the U.S. Departments of Commerce and 
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Each component of the study will engage the relevant interested and 
affected stakeholders such as industry representatives, driver and 
operator groups, and workforce training providers to ensure input from 
across the diverse commercial and non-commercial driver industry. While 
it may not be feasible to precisely predict the exact capabilities or 
timing of new automated vehicles technologies entering the marketplace, 
this study may construct statistical models, use-cases, and scenarios 
based projections based on the best available data on market forecasts, 
industry trends, and relevant labor markets to evaluate different 
technology penetration scenarios and their potential effects on the 
workforce and related factors.
    The objectives of the request for comments on the comprehensive 
analysis of the impact of automated vehicle technologies on workforce 
are to obtain feedback into the scope of the study regarding the 
magnitude of the potential pace of transition in the transportation 
workforce and how other sectors of the workforce will adapt to the 
quality of life effects due to automation. The study will also examine 
training availability and what will be required to transition the 
traditional commercial driver into the new environment including 
transit bus automation. Finally, the study will analyze the issues of 
driver situational awareness in vehicles which may require operator re-
engagement, the safety of truck platooning, and related traffic 
    Background: The pace of development and deployment of automated 
vehicle-related technology is expected to accelerate over the next 
decade. Likewise, the effects of this new technology on the current 
workforce is a concern to operators and industry. In August 2017, a 
Department of Commerce's Office of the Chief Economist study focused on 
``workers impacted by the adoption of autonomous vehicles used on 
roadways, such as automobiles, buses, and trucks (The Employment Impact 
of Autonomous Vehicles,\1\ Economics and Statistics Administration 
Issue Brief #05-17). The study found that ``. . . the adoption of AVs 
has the potential to impact a sizable share of jobs in the economy.'' 
This could include job creation as well as displacement. Also, the 
America's Workforce and the Self-

[[Page 50748]]

Driving Future \2\ report, published by Securing America's Future 
Energy in June 2018, outlines the potential impact of autonomous 
vehicles use on the labor force, noting some of the complexities in 
assessing job gain/loss and displacement, as well as potential long-
term employment and societal benefits. In addition to the introduction 
of automated vehicles, the Nation's commercial driver \3\ pool is 
impacted by other dynamics such as operator pay, route preferences, and 

    \1\ http://www.esa.doc.gov/sites/default/files/Employment%20Impact%20Autonomous%20Vehicles_0.pdf.
    \2\ https://avworkforce.secureenergy.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/Groshen-et-al-Report-June-2018-1.pdf.
    \3\ Commercial drivers for the scope of this study is defined as 
professional drivers who earn a living driving tow trucks, tractor 
trailers, motor coaches, and buses.

    Advanced transportation technologies present enormous potential for 
improving the mobility of travelers with disabilities vastly enhancing 
quality of life, workplace access, and opportunities for full 
participation in the workforce and in society. Through the Accessible 
Transportation Technologies Research Initiative (ATTRI), DOT is leading 
efforts to develop and implement transformative applications to improve 
mobility options for all travelers, particularly those with 
disabilities. DOT is seeking to explore innovative travel options 
focusing its efforts on removing barriers to transportation for people 
with visual, hearing, cognitive, and mobility disabilities through all 
steps of the trip-making process. DOT seeks to remove barriers to 
transportation across the ``complete trip'' chain leveraging advanced 
technology to enable people to travel independently any time, to any 
place, regardless of their individual abilities.
    The 2018 Consolidated Appropriations Act provided up to $1.5 
million to the Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the 
Secretary of Labor, to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the impact 
of ADAS and HAV technologies on drivers and operators of commercial 
motor vehicles, including labor displacement. For purposes of this 
analysis, drivers and operators, who earn an income by driving, of 
commercial motor vehicles includes drivers which require a commercial 
driver's license and those that do not; and package delivery drivers, 
taxi, mobility as a service, and Transportation Network Companies 
    Statement of Work (SOW): The general areas of inquiry are 
summarized and listed below. Specific research questions could be 
further adopted during the study examination after assumptions and 
study parameters are validated based on input and feedback obtained 
through the request for comments period. Comments obtained from this 
notice period will be used to calibrate the study strategy to enable 
the maximum value proposition.
    1. Labor force transformation studies including potential 
statistical models to generate estimates of labor force effects given 
various HAV and ADAS adoption/timeline scenarios and segments of 
freight and passenger transportation that could be affected.
    2. Labor force training needs including minimum and recommended 
training requirements, labor market programs that link workers to 
employment and public or private training programs to address skill 
    3. Technology operational safety issues impact to situational 
awareness caused by HAV and ADAS including options for reducing safety 
risks of reduced situational awareness and visibility, mobility, and 
safety issues related to platooning.
    4. Quality of life improvements due to automation including mental 
fatigue related to traffic and queueing; enhanced travel choices, new 
job opportunities, and accessibility leading to independent travel and 
workplace access for people with disabilities, older adults, and 
individuals with functional impairments across the lifespan.

         Area of inquiry                     Research questions                     General study tasks
                                   1. Labor Force Transformation/Displacement
Pace of potential job              When should stakeholders anticipate     Conduct a comprehensive literature
 displacement from ADAS and HAV     widespread introduction of AV           review of related studies and
 adoption.                          technology which would directly         methodologies.
                                    impact the driver workforce?           Create a predictive statistical model
                                   What are the potential effects from      to generate estimates of labor force
                                    the different scenarios regarding       effects given various adoption/
                                    adoption timelines and technology       timeline scenarios. The model should
                                    developments on the professional        be well-documented and replicable by
                                    driver labor force?                     outside parties.
Segments of freight and passenger  What are the defined segments of        Create a typology of the specific
 transportation that could be       commercial drivers in the United        segments of commercial and non-
 affected.                          States?                                 commercial drivers as it relates to
                                   Which of these segments are most         trucks, buses, mail/package delivery
                                    likely to be impacted, negatively or    drivers, and taxis/transportation
                                    positively, and to what extent?         network companies.
                                                                           Identify each segment most likely to
                                                                            be effected, and the extent of that
                                                                            effect. The effect could be job
                                                                            displacement or increased demand for
                                                                            that driver segment.
                                          2. Labor Force Training Needs
Minimum and recommended training   As commercial and non-commercial        Catalog and annotate comparative
 requirements.                      drivers transition into other           studies from other transitioning
                                    transportation, or even unrelated,      labor markets e.g. manufacturing,
                                    positions, what are new likely          agriculture, banking, etc.
                                    opportunities and what are the         Identify the possible training needs
                                    minimum levels of training and skills   for the variety of commercial and
                                    necessary to occupy those positions?    non-commercial drivers potentially
                                   What are the training/skills             impacted by AVs--both newly created
                                    requirements for those jobs most in     transportation jobs or jobs in
                                    demand?                                 related or non-related sectors.
                                                                           Produce recommendations of training
                                                                            requirements to meet the needs
                                                                            identified and evaluate the
                                                                            available federal and state programs
                                                                            to meet these needs.
Existing labor market programs     What federal and state government-      Prepare and annotate a comprehensive
 that link workers to employment.   sponsored programs are used to match    inventory of current federal and
                                    individuals with employment             state labor market programs that
                                    opportunities?                          link workers to job opportunities.
                                   What is the capacity of each program    Evaluate the capacity of these
                                    to meet the needs of displaced          programs to meet the needs of
                                    commercial and non-commercial           commercial and non-commercial
                                    drivers?                                drivers displaced by autonomous
Identification of how existing     What gap(s) exist between existing      Identify modifications to existing
 public or private training         programs and the needs of commercial    public or private training programs
 programs can be modified to        and non-commercial drivers, including   to include the teaching of new
 address skill gaps.                transitioning to new jobs?              skills to safely operate ADS
                                   If gaps exist, what recommended          equipped vehicles as well as new
                                    modifications to existing programs      skills needed to transition to other
                                    are needed to meet these needs?         jobs.

[[Page 50749]]

                                     3. Technology Operational Safety Issues
Impact to situational awareness    What are the risks of reduced           Complete a literature review on the
 caused by ADS and ADAS.            situational awareness for a driver      risks of the lack of driver
                                    using ADAS technology, such as the      vigilance and reduced situational
                                    potential for increased drowsiness?     awareness when operating a vehicle
                                                                            equipped with ADS or ADAS
                                                                            technologies. Produce a typology on
                                                                            the kinds of risks that are
                                                                            generated by this technology.
Options for reducing safety risks  Quantify the likelihood of reduced      Review existing human subject
 of reduced situational awareness.  driver situational awareness and        research and engage relevant
                                    identify methods and options to         stakeholders to identify existing
                                    mitigate these risks.                   and potential technological
                                                                            applications to address human
                                                                            factors risk.
Visibility, mobility, and safety   What are the principle safety issues    Identify and catalog existing studies
 issues related to platooning.      associated with the use of platooning   on visibility, mobility, and safety
                                    such as the reduced visibility of       issues related to truck platooning.
                                    drivers in the following vehicles,      Provide an annotated inventory of
                                    and the interaction of passenger cars   current or developing technologies
                                    with truck platoons at highway          which can address these issues and
                                    speeds? What are the potential          their likelihood of adoption.
                                    positive benefits of platooning         Catalog state laws addressing truck
                                    technologies?                           platoon operations.
                                  4. Quality of Life Effects Due to Automation
Potential effects to health and    Given that higher level of automation   Conduct a comprehensive literature
 quality of life due to ADS and     allows drivers, subject to this         review of health issues associated
 ADAS.                              study, to conduct other tasks other     with commercial and non-commercial
                                    than driving, how will this impact      drivers, including mental fatigue
                                    the health and quality of life of the   related to traffic and queueing.
                                    driving labor force.                   Explore insights into how HAV and
                                   What are the potential economic          ADAS can mitigate health issues,
                                    benefits to increased access to jobs    state of the industry pertaining to
                                    and the community for transportation-   ADAS and HAV mobility as a service
                                    disadvantaged riders such as people     including research studies relating
                                    with disabilities and seniors.          to technology readiness, enabling
                                                                            new job opportunities, and gaps in
                                                                            achieving the complete trip vision
                                                                            for older Americans and people with
Note: Each of the four study components may include stakeholder outreach, as appropriate, to inform the analysis
  and identify relevant data sources.

    Comments are requested on the following questions regarding the 
Statement of Work:
    1. Is the SOW in line with public interest?
    2. Should the SOW be expanded or reduced to include or exclude any 
    3. Are there specific literature or studies that have been 
conducted on this subject that DOT and DOL should review before 
initiating this comprehensive analysis?
    All comments and presentations should be submitted to the docket 
for consideration.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: If you have questions about this 
notice, please contact us at automation@dot.gov or Kareem Habib (202-
366-1601) or Sujeesh Kurup (202-366-9953).

    Written Comments: Please submit all written comments no later than 
November 5, 2018, by any of the following methods:
     Federal Rulemaking Portal: Go to http://www.regulations.gov. Follow the online instructions for submitting 
     Mail: Docket Management Facility: DOT, 1200 New Jersey 
Avenue SE, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, Washington, DC 
     Hand Delivery or Courier: 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE, West 
Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, Washington, DC 20590, between 9 
a.m. and 5 p.m. ET, Monday through Friday, except Federal Holidays.
     Fax: 202-366-1767.
    Instructions: All submissions must include the Agency name and 
docket number. Note that all comments received will be posted without 
change to http://www.regulations.gov, including any personal 
information provided. Please see the Privacy Act discussion below.
    Docket: For access to the docket, go to http://www.regulations.gov 
to find Docket No. DOT-OST-2018-0150 at any time or to 1200 New Jersey 
Avenue SE, West Building, Ground Floor, Room W12-140, Washington, DC 
20590, between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except Federal 
Holidays. Telephone: 202-366-9826.
    Privacy Act: Anyone is able to search the electronic form of all 
comments received into any of our dockets by the name of the individual 
submitting the comment (or signing the comment, if submitted on behalf 
of an association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's 
complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on 
April 11, 2000, (Volume 65, Number 70; Pages 19477-78), or you may 
visit http://www.regulations.gov/privacy.html.
    Confidential Information: Any submissions containing Confidential 
Information must be delivered to OST in the following manner:
    [cir] Submitted in a sealed envelope marked ``confidential 
treatment requested'';
    [cir] Accompanied by an index listing the document(s) or 
information that the submitter would like the Departments to withhold. 
The index should include information such as numbers used to identify 
the relevant document(s) or information, document title and 
description, and relevant pages numbers and/or section numbers within a 
document; and
    [cir] Submitted with a statement explaining the submitter's grounds 
for objecting to disclosure of the information to the public.
    OST also requests that submitters of Confidential Information 
include a non-confidential version (either redacted or summarized) of 
those confidential submissions in the public docket. In the event that 
the submitter cannot provide a non-confidential version of its 
submission, OST requests that the submitter post a notice in the docket 
stating that it has provided OST with Confidential Information. Should 
a submitter fail to docket either a non-confidential version of its 
submission or to post a notice that Confidential Information has been 
provided, we will note the receipt of the submission on the docket, 
with the submitter's organization or name (to the degree permitted by 
law) and the date of submission.

    Issued in Washington, DC, on October 3, 2018, under authority 
delegated at 49 U.S.C. 1.25a.
Finch Fulton,
Deputy Assistant Secretary for Transportation Policy.
[FR Doc. 2018-21842 Filed 10-5-18; 8:45 am]

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