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Retrofit/Rebuild Requirements for 1993 and Earlier Model Year Urban Buses; Public Review of a Notification of Intent to Certify Equipment




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Buses American Government

Retrofit/Rebuild Requirements for 1993 and Earlier Model Year Urban Buses; Public Review of a Notification of Intent to Certify Equipment

Richard D. Wilson
Federal Register
March 20, 1998

[Federal Register: March 20, 1998 (Volume 63, Number 54)]
[Notices]               
[Page 13662-13664]
From the Federal Register Online via GPO Access [wais.access.gpo.gov]
[DOCID:fr20mr98-103]

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

[FRL-5984-4]

 
Retrofit/Rebuild Requirements for 1993 and Earlier Model Year 
Urban Buses; Public Review of a Notification of Intent to Certify 
Equipment

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Notice of agency receipt of a notification of intent to certify 
equipment and initiation of 45-day public review and comment period.

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has submitted to the Agency a 
notification of intent to certify urban bus retrofit/rebuild equipment 
pursuant to 40 CFR part 85, subpart O. The notification, with cover 
letter dated December 8, 1997 describes equipment intended to comply 
with the 0.10 g/bhp-hr particulate matter (PM) standard.
    The candidate equipment is applicable to all 1985 through 1993 
model year federal and California certified 6V92TA DDEC engines 
manufactured by Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC). This includes all 
DDEC II engines, DDEC I engines (1985 through 1987), and methanol-
fueled engines (manufactured from 1991 through 1993).
    The equipment utilizes components from DDC's certified engine 
upgrade kit, modified fuel injectors, conversion from DDEC II to DDEC 
III engine control system, and a converter/muffler (previously 
certified to reduce particulate matter by 25 percent and manufactured 
by either Engine Control System Ltd, Engelhard Corporation, or Nelson 
Industries).
    Both the federal and California exhaust emissions standards for NOx 
were lowered to 5.0 g/bhp-hr beginning with the 1991 model year. The 
emissions data provided with DDC's notification indicate that engines 
equipped with the candidate equipment can meet the 5.0 g/bhp-hr 
NOX standard. Therefore, if certified, the equipment could 
be used for all applicable engines, including those in California.
    No life cycle costs information has been submitted by DDC. If 
certified, no new requirements would be placed on operators, and no 
operator would be required to purchase this equipment as a result of 
the certification.
    Pursuant to Sec. 85.1407(a)(7), today's Federal Register notice 
summarizes the notification, announces that the notification is 
available for public review and comment, and initiates a 45-day period 
during which comments can be submitted.
    The Agency will review this notification of intent to certify, as 
well as any comments it receives, to determine whether the equipment 
described in the notification of intent to certify should be certified. 
If certified, the equipment can be used by urban bus operators to 
reduce the particulate matter of urban bus engines.
    The notification of intent to certify, as well as other materials 
specifically relevant to it, are contained in Category XXIV of Public 
Docket A-93-42, entitled ``Certification of Urban Bus Retrofit/Rebuild 
Equipment''. This docket is located at the address listed below.
    Today's notice initiates a 45-day period during which the Agency 
will accept written comments relevant to whether or not the equipment 
included in this notification of intent to certify should be certified. 
Comments should be provided in writing to Public Docket A-93-42, 
Category XXIV, at the address below, and an identical copy should be 
submitted to William Rutledge, also at the address below.

DATES: Comments must be submitted on or before May 4, 1998.

ADDRESSES: Submit separate copies of comments to each of the two 
following addresses:
    1. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Public Docket A-93-42 
(Category XXIV), Room M-1500, 401 M Street SW., Washington, DC 20460.
    2. William Rutledge, Engine Programs and Compliance Division 
(6403J), 401 ``M'' Street SW., Washington, DC 20460.
    The DDC notification of intent to certify, as well as other 
materials specifically relevant to it, are contained in the public 
docket indicated above. Docket items may be inspected from 8 a.m. until 
5:30 p.m., Monday through Friday. As provided in 40 CFR Part 2, a 
reasonable fee may be charged by the Agency for copying docket 
materials.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: William Rutledge, Engine Programs and 
Compliance Division (6403J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 401 
M Street S.W., Washington, DC 20460. Telephone: (202) 564-9297.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

I. Background

    On April 21, 1993, the Agency published final Retrofit/Rebuild 
Requirements for 1993 and Earlier Model Year Urban Buses (58 FR 21359). 
The retrofit/rebuild program is intended to reduce the ambient levels 
of particulate matter (PM) in urban areas and is limited to 1993 and 
earlier model year (MY) urban buses operating in metropolitan areas 
with 1980 populations of 750,000 or more, whose engines are rebuilt or 
replaced after January 1, 1995. Operators of the affected buses are 
required to choose between two compliance options: Program 1 sets 
particulate matter emissions requirements for each urban bus engine in 
an operator's fleet which is rebuilt or replaced; Program 2 is a fleet 
averaging program that establishes specific annual target levels for 
average PM emissions from urban buses in an operator's fleet.
    A key aspect of the program is the certification of retrofit/
rebuild equipment. To meet either of the two compliance options, 
operators of the

[[Page 13663]]

affected buses must use equipment which has been certified by the 
Agency. Requirements under either of the two compliance options depend 
on the availability of retrofit/rebuild equipment certified for each 
engine model. To be used for Program 1, equipment must be certified as 
meeting a 0.10 g/bhp-hr PM standard or as achieving at least a 25 
percent reduction in PM. Equipment used for Program 2 must be certified 
as providing some level of PM reduction that would in turn be claimed 
by urban bus operators when calculating their average fleet PM levels 
attained under the program. For Program 1, information on life cycle 
costs must be submitted in the notification of intent to certify in 
order for certification of the equipment to initiate (or trigger) 
program requirements. To trigger program requirements, the certifier 
must guarantee that the equipment will be available to all affected 
operators for a life cycle cost of $7,940 or less at the 0.10 g/bhp-hr 
PM level, or for a life cycle cost of $2,000 or less for 25 percent or 
greater reduction in PM. Both of these values are based on 1992 
dollars.

II. Notification of Intent To Certify

    By a notification of intent to certify, DDC applied for 
certification of equipment applicable to all of its federal and 
California certified 6V92TA model engines having electronically 
controlled fuel injection (Detroit Diesel Electronic Control--DDEC) 
that were originally manufactured between 1985 through December 31, 
1994. The notification, with cover letter dated December 8, 1997, 
signed with the erroneous date of December 12, 1998, and labeled with 
an ``Issued'' date of November 19, 1997, describes equipment that is 
intended to comply with the 0.10 g/bhp-hr standard and is applicable to 
6V92TA DDEC engines of model years 1985--1993. DDEC I engines (1985 
through 1987) and methanol-fueled engines (manufactured from 1991 
through 1993) may also utilize this kit.
    The equipment utilizes components from DDC's certified engine 
upgrade kit, modified fuel injectors, conversion from DDEC II to DDEC 
III engine control system, and a converter/muffler (previously 
certified to reduce particulate matter by 25 percent and manufactured 
by either Engine Control Systems Ltd, Engelhard Corporation, or Nelson 
Industries).
    The equipment to be certified is included in three constituent 
kits. The three constituent kits included in this submission are as 
follows:
    Engine Rebuild Kit--Newly Manufactured Parts: This kit is comprised 
of newly manufactured parts and consist of a gasket kit, air inlet 
hose, blower drive gear (2.05 to 1), blower by-pass valve assembly, 
cylinder kits (piston assemblies and cylinder liners), new electronic 
unit fuel injectors and DDEC II to DDEC III conversion kits.
    Engine Rebuild Kit--Reliabilt Parts: This kit includes 
Reliabilt remanufactured parts, including camshafts, blower 
assembly, turbocharger and head assemblies.
    Converter/Muffler Kits: In order to provide the greatest 
flexibility to transit operators by providing several converter/muffler 
options, DDC plans to include the converter/mufflers provided by three 
suppliers: Engelhard Corporation, Engine Control Systems Ltd, and 
Nelson Industries. Transit operators will be able to select a 
converter/muffler from any one of the suppliers which will be packaged 
as a direct replacement for the vehicle muffler and which will 
accommodate the installation requirements of the various engine/vehicle 
combinations. Certification of the Engelhard CMXTM 
converter/muffler is described in a Federal Register notice of May 31, 
1995 (60 FR 28402. The Engine Control Systems' converter/muffler is 
described in a Federal Register notice of January 6, 1997 (62 FR 746). 
Nelson Industries' converter/muffler is described in a Federal Register 
notice of November 26, 1997 (62 FR 63159).
    One of each type of constituent kit is required for the rebuild of 
an engine. The engine rebuild kit usage is based on the required engine 
power rating (253 and 277 horsepower is available), engine rotation 
direction and orientation (43 degree tilt, 15 degree tilt, and 
upright). The notification includes parts lists. The converter/muffler 
kit usage is based on the operator's choice of converter supplier and 
the engine/vehicle combination.
    DDC states that standard procedures, as described in the service 
manual of 92 Series engines, are to be used when rebuilding the base 
engine using the candidate kit. No unique rebuild procedures are 
required. Additionally, there are no differences in service intervals 
or maintenance practices for the base engine associated with the 
installation of the kit. The converter/muffler requires no regularly 
scheduled maintenance, only an occasional cleaning if the maximum back 
pressure of the exhaust system is exceeded.
    DDC presents exhaust emission data that were developed for the 
engine configuration rated at 277 horsepower. Testing of the candidate 
kit was conducted using each of the three converter/mufflers with the 
upgraded engine configuration. The test data indicate that the 
emissions of hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen 
(NOX), and smoke measurements for the engine equipped with 
the candidate equipment are less than exhaust emissions standards 
applicable to 1993 model year urban buses. The data is shown in the 
table below.

                                                     Exhaust Emissions From 6V92TA DDEC II (277 hp)                                                     
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                           Gaseous and particulate (g/bhp-hr)                                     Smoke (percent opacity)                               
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------        Comment       
                HC                       CO          NOX           PM          BSFC a         ACC           LUG          Peak                           
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1.3...............................         15.5          5.0         0.10 b ...........          20            15            50    1993 Urban Bus       
                                                                                                                                    Standards.          
0.3...............................          1.0          4.8         0.08         0.516           1.7           1.2           3.0  Converter/Muffler A. 
0.1...............................          0.2          4.7         0.08         0.506           2.2           1.9           2.9  Converter/Muffler B. 
0.2...............................          0.5          4.9         0.095        0.517           1.6           1.3           2.7  Converter/Muffler C. 
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
a Brake specific fuel consumption in units of pounds of fuel per brake-horsepower-hour.                                                                 
b Non-compliance penalties are available up to 0.25 g/bhp-hr.                                                                                           

    No life cycle costs information has been submitted by DDC. DDC does 
not intend certification of this equipment to trigger program 
requirements for the applicable engines.
    Even if ultimately certified by EPA, the equipment described in 
DDC's notification may require additional review by the California Air 
Resources Board (CARB) before use in California. EPA recognizes that 
special situations

[[Page 13664]]

may exist in California that are reflected in the unique emissions 
standards, engine calibrations, and fuel specifications of the State. 
While requirements of the federal urban bus program apply to several 
metropolitan areas in California, EPA understands the view of CARB that 
equipment certified under the urban bus program, to be used in 
California, must be provided with an executive order exempting it from 
the anti-tampering prohibitions of that State. Those interested in 
additional information should contact the Aftermarket Part Section of 
CARB, at (818) 575-6848.
    Certification of the candidate DDC equipment would affect operators 
as follows. EPA has not yet certified equipment, for the applicable 
DDEC engines, to comply with the 0.10 g/bhp-hr standard and as being 
available for less that the applicable life cycle cost. Therefore, the 
0.10 g/bhp-hr PM standard has not been triggered for the applicable 
engines. If the candidate equipment is certified, then no new 
requirements would be placed on operators and no operator would be 
required to purchase this equipment as a result of certification.
    If the DDC kit is certified, then it would be available to be used 
in full compliance with urban bus program requirements. Certification 
of CMXTM converter/muffler manufactured by the Engelhard 
Corporation (60 FR 28402; May 31, 1995) triggered the requirement for 
the applicable engines, when rebuilt or replaced, to reduce PM by at 
least 25 percent. Until such time that the 0.10 g/bhp-hr standard is 
triggered, the certification of the CMXTM means that 
operators who elect to use compliance program 1 must use equipment 
certified to reduce PM emissions by at least 25 percent, when 
rebuilding or replacing the applicable engines. If certified, the DDC 
kit would meet, and exceed, this requirement. The DDC kit could also be 
used in full compliance when the program requirement to use equipment 
certified to the 0.10 g/bhp-hr standard is triggered.
    If the Agency certifies the candidate equipment, then operators who 
choose to comply with Program 2 and install this equipment, would use 
the 0.10 g/bhp-hr certification level in their calculations for fleet 
level attained (FLA) as specified in the program regulations.
    At a minimum, EPA expects to evaluate this notification of intent 
to certify, and other materials submitted as applicable, to determine 
whether there is adequate demonstration of compliance with: (1) The 
certification requirements of Sec. 85.1406, including whether the 
testing accurately substantiates the claimed emission reduction or 
emission levels; and, (2) the requirements of Sec. 85.1407 for a 
notification of intent to certify.
    The Agency requests that those commenting also consider these 
regulatory requirements, plus provide comments on any experience or 
knowledge relevant to: (a) Problems with installing, maintaining, and/
or using the candidate equipment on applicable engines; and, (b) 
whether the equipment is compatible with affected vehicles.
    The date of this notice initiates a 45-day period during which the 
Agency will accept written comments relevant to whether or not the 
equipment described in the DDC notification of intent to certify should 
be certified pursuant to the Urban Bus Rebuild Requirements. Interested 
parties are encouraged to review the notification of intent to certify 
and provide comment during the 45-day period. Please send separate 
copies of your comments to each of the above two addresses.
    The Agency will review this notification of intent to certify, 
along with comments received from interested parties, and attempt to 
resolve or clarify issues as necessary. During the review process, the 
Agency may add additional documents to the docket. These documents will 
also be available for public review and comment.

    Dated: March 12, 1998.
Richard D. Wilson,
Acting Assistant Administrator, Air and Radiation.
[FR Doc. 98-7309 Filed 3-19-98; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 6560-50-P



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