Home Page About Us Contribute




Escort, Inc.



Tweets by @CrittendenAuto






By accessing/using The Crittenden Automotive Library/CarsAndRacingStuff.com, you signify your agreement with the Terms of Use on our Legal Information page. Our Privacy Policy is also available there.

Manufacturing Incentives for Alternative Fuel Vehicles

American Government Special Collections Reference Desk

American Government Topics:  National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

Manufacturing Incentives for Alternative Fuel Vehicles

Barry Felrice
Federal Register
December 19, 1994

[Federal Register: December 19, 1994]


=======================================================================
-----------------------------------------------------------------------

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

49 CFR Part 538

[Docket No. 94-96; Notice 1]
RIN 2127-AF18, 2127-AF38

 
Manufacturing Incentives for Alternative Fuel Vehicles

AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, DOT (NHTSA), 
Department of Transportation (DOT).

ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM).

-----------------------------------------------------------------------

SUMMARY: Under the corporate average fuel economy program, certain 
incentives are provided for the manufacture of alternative fuel 
vehicles, including dual fuel vehicles. Among other things, dual fuel 
passenger automobiles which meet a minimum driving range qualify for 
special treatment in the calculation of fuel economy. In order to 
implement a new statutory requirement, NHTSA is proposing to amend its 
existing regulation concerning minimum driving range. The minimum 
driving range for all dual fuel passenger automobiles other than 
electric vehicles would be set at 200 miles. The agency is also 
proposing to establish gallons equivalent measurements for certain 
gaseous fuels. These measurements are needed to calculate the fuel 
economy of alternative fueled vehicles.

DATES: Comments must be received on or before February 17, 1995.

ADDRESSES: Comments must refer to the docket and notice numbers set 
forth above and be submitted (preferably in 10 copies) to Docket 
Section, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Room 5109, 400 
Seventh Street SW, Washington, DC 20590. The Docket is open 9:30 a.m. 
to 4 p.m., Monday through Friday.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Henrietta L. Spinner, Motor 
Vehicle Requirements Division, Office of Market Incentives, National 
Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh Street SW., 
Washington, DC 20590, (202) 366-4802.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:

Background

A. Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988

    Section 6 of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act of 1988 amended the 
fuel economy provisions of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost 
Savings Act (Cost Savings Act) by adding a new section 513, 
``Manufacturing Incentives for Automobiles.'' Section 513 contained 
incentives for the manufacture of vehicles designed to operate on 
alcohol or natural gas, including dual fuel vehicles, i.e., vehicles 
capable of operating on one of those alternative fuels and either 
gasoline or diesel fuel.
    Section 513 provided that dual fuel vehicles meeting specified 
criteria qualify for special treatment in the calculation of their fuel 
economy for purposes of the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) 
standards. The fuel economy of a qualifying vehicle is calculated in a 
manner that results in a relatively high fuel economy value, thus 
encouraging its production as a way of facilitating a manufacturer's 
compliance with the CAFE standards. One of the qualifying criteria for 
passenger automobiles was to meet a minimum driving range, which was to 
be established by NHTSA.
    NHTSA was required to establish two minimum driving ranges, one for 
``dual energy'' (alcohol/gasoline or diesel fuel) passenger automobiles 
when operating on alcohol, and the other for ``natural gas dual 
energy'' (natural gas/gasoline or diesel fuel) passenger automobiles 
when operating on natural gas. In establishing the driving ranges, 
NHTSA was required to consider the purposes of the Alternative Motor 
Fuels Act, consumer acceptability, economic practicability, technology, 
environmental impact, safety, driveability, performance, and any other 
factors deemed relevant.
    The Alternative Motor Fuels Act and its legislative history made it 
clear that the driving ranges were to be low enough to encourage the 
production of dual fuel passenger automobiles, yet not so low that 
motorists would be discouraged by a low driving range from actually 
fueling their vehicles with the alternative fuels. Section 513(h)(2)(C) 
provided that the minimum driving range for ``dual energy'' passenger 
automobiles may not be less than 200 miles. Section 513(h)(2)(B) 
allowed passenger automobile manufacturers to petition the agency to 
set a lower range for a particular model or models than the range 
established by the agency for all models. However, the minimum driving 
range could not be reduced to less than 200 miles for any model of 
``dual energy'' passenger automobile.

B. Establishment of Part 538

    On April 26, 1990, NHTSA published in the Federal Register (55 FR 
17611) a final rule establishing 49 CFR part 538, Driving Ranges for 
Dual Energy and Natural Gas Dual Energy Passenger Automobiles. The 
agency established a minimum driving range of 200 miles for ``dual 
energy'' passenger automobiles, and a minimum driving range of 100 
miles for ``natural gas dual energy'' passenger automobiles. NHTSA did 
not specify higher ranges because it was concerned that such ranges 
could discourage manufacturers from producing dual fueled vehicles, 
since the manufacturers would need to redesign their vehicles to 
accommodate additional or larger fuel tanks in order to meet the higher 
ranges.
    In part 538, NHTSA also established procedures by which 
manufacturers may petition the agency to establish a lower driving 
range for a specific model or models of ``natural gas dual energy'' 
passenger automobiles and by which the agency may grant or deny such 
petitions.

C. Energy Policy Act of 1992

    The Energy Policy Act of 1992 amended section 513 of the Cost 
Savings Act to expand the scope of the alternative fuels it promotes. 
The amended section provided incentives for the production of vehicles 
using, in addition to alcohol and natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, 
hydrogen, coal derived liquid fuels, fuels (other than alcohol) derived 
from biological materials, electricity (including electricity from 
solar energy), and any fuel NHTSA determines, by rule, is substantially 
not petroleum and would yield substantial energy security benefits and 
substantial environmental benefits.
    Section 513 continued to provide incentives for the production of 
dual fuel vehicles, i.e., vehicles that operate on one of a now 
expanded list of alternative fuels and on gasoline or diesel fuel. 
NHTSA notes that some statutory terminology was changed by the 1992 
amendments. Among other things, the terms ``dual energy'' and ``natural 
gas dual energy'' were dropped, and the terms ``alternative fueled 
automobile,'' ``dedicated automobile,'' and ``dual fueled automobile'' 
were added.
    Section 513 also continued to require dual fueled passenger 
automobiles to meet specified criteria, including meeting a minimum 
driving range, in order to qualify for the special treatment in the 
calculation of their fuel economy for purposes of the CAFE standards.
    One change made by the 1992 amendments concerning driving ranges 
was that, under section 513(h)(2), the minimum driving range set by 
NHTSA may not be less than 200 miles for dual fueled passenger 
automobiles other than electric vehicles. The amendments also provided 
that the agency may not, in response to petitions from manufacturers, 
set an alternative range for a particular model or models that is lower 
than 200 miles, except for electric vehicles.
    The 1992 amendments necessitate amending part 538. First, the 
existing 100 mile minimum driving range for vehicles previously 
categorized as ``natural gas dual energy'' vehicles must be raised to 
at least 200 miles. Also, NHTSA must establish a minimum driving range 
for the expanded scope of dual fueled vehicles. Part 538's petition 
procedures also need to be amended to conform to the new statutory 
provisions.
    In addition to necessitating amendments to part 538's driving range 
provisions, the 1992 amendments also require NHTSA to ``determine the 
appropriate gallons equivalent measurement for gaseous fuels other than 
natural gas * * *.'' Such a measurement is needed to carry out the 
special fuel economy calculations that apply to alternative fuel 
vehicles.

Proposal

    In this document, NHTSA is proposing to amend part 538 to make it 
consistent with the 1992 amendments to the Cost Savings Act. As 
discussed below, the agency is proposing to set the minimum driving 
range for all dual fueled passenger automobiles other than electric 
vehicles at 200 miles. NHTSA is also proposing to remove the petition 
procedures until it sets a minimum driving range for electric dual 
fueled passenger automobiles.
    The agency notes that, due to the complexity of the issues relating 
to establishment of a minimum driving range for electric dual fueled 
passenger automobiles, otherwise known as hybrid electric vehicles, it 
is addressing that issue in a separate rulemaking. On September 22, 
1994, NHTSA published in the Federal Register (59 FR 48589) a request 
for comments seeking information that would help it develop a proposal 
in that area.
    The agency is also proposing in this document to add to Part 538, 
gallons equivalent measurements for compressed natural gas, liquefied 
natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and hythane.
    NHTSA notes that, on July 5, 1994, the Cost Savings Act was revised 
and codified ``without substantive change.'' The provisions formerly 
found in section 513 of the Cost Savings Act are now at 49 U.S.C. 
32901, 32905, and 32906.

A. Minimum Driving Range for Dual Fueled Passenger Automobiles Other 
Than Electric Vehicles

    In light of the 1992 amendments to the Cost Savings Act, NHTSA is 
proposing to set the minimum driving range for dual fueled passenger 
automobiles other than electric vehicles at 200 miles.
    As before, the agency is required to consider the following factors 
in prescribing a minimum driving range: The purposes of the Alternative 
Motor Fuels Act of 1988, consumer acceptability, economic 
practicability, technology, environmental impact, safety, driveability, 
performance, and any other factors considered relevant. Moreover, given 
the purposes of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act and its legislative 
history, NHTSA continues to believe that the minimum driving ranges 
should be low enough to encourage the production of dual fueled 
passenger automobiles, yet not so low that motorists would be 
discouraged by a low driving range from actually fueling their vehicles 
with the alternative fuels.
    As discussed above, NHTSA addressed the appropriate level for 
minimum driving range in April 1990. The agency believes that the only 
relevant changed conditions since that time are: (1) the decision by 
Congress to require the minimum driving range for dual fueled passenger 
automobiles other than electric vehicles to be at least 200 miles, and 
(2) the expanded scope of dual fueled passenger automobiles for which a 
minimum driving range must be established.
    Part 538 currently specifies a minimum driving range of 200 miles 
for alcohol dual fueled passenger automobiles. The agency does not 
believe that any relevant events have occurred since that range was 
established that should lead to a different range. NHTSA notes that 
alcohol dual fueled vehicles are designed so that the same fuel tank is 
used for either alcohol or gasoline. The available space in a passenger 
automobile for fuel tanks is limited. In setting a driving range of 200 
miles for these vehicles, the agency was concerned that a higher 
minimum range could require some automobiles to be redesigned to 
accommodate larger fuel tanks, thereby discouraging the production of 
such vehicles.
    NHTSA believes that the same considerations that apply to alcohol 
dual fueled vehicles also apply to ones fueled by other liquids. The 
agency is unaware of any other potentially available liquid alternative 
fuels that would have a significantly higher energy content than 
alcohol on a volume basis. Assuming that other liquid alternative fuels 
do not have a significantly higher energy content, a driving range 
greater than 200 miles for dual fueled passenger automobiles using any 
liquid fuel could necessitate redesign of the vehicles to accommodate a 
larger fuel tank. The agency requests comments on whether there are any 
potentially available liquid alternative fuels that do have a 
significantly higher energy content than alcohol on a volume basis, 
and, if so, whether a driving range higher than 200 miles should be set 
for such fuels. Depending on the comments, the agency may set a higher 
driving range for such vehicles.
    The above discussion assumes that the same fuel tank could be used 
for both the alternative liquid fuel and gasoline, as is the case for 
alcohol dual fueled vehicles. If a separate fuel tank were required for 
the alternative liquid fuel, the limited available space in a passenger 
automobile for such an additional tank would be an even more critical 
reason not to set the minimum driving range above 200 miles.
    Gaseous fuels always require a separate fuel tank from gasoline or 
diesel fuel. In the previous rulemaking concerning minimum driving 
range, the agency's concerns about the limited available space in a 
passenger automobile for additional fuel tanks led it to establish a 
100 mile minimum driving range for natural gas dual fueled vehicles.
    Given the 1992 amendments to the Cost Savings Act, NHTSA has 
tentatively concluded that the minimum driving range for these vehicles 
should be increased to 200 miles. As discussed above, the agency cannot 
set a lower minimum driving range for these vehicles. Moreover, NHTSA 
believes that the minimum range should not be greater than 200 miles 
because such a range could discourage manufacturers from producing 
natural gas dual fueled vehicles, given the limited available space for 
additional fuel tanks. The agency notes that the concerns it expressed 
in 1990 about a driving range greater than 100 miles for these vehicles 
would be of even greater significance for ranges above 200 miles.
    The same considerations that apply to natural gas dual fueled 
vehicles also apply to dual fueled vehicles using other gaseous fuels, 
since all of these vehicles require a separate fuel tank from gasoline 
or diesel fuel. Therefore, the agency is proposing to establish a 200 
mile driving range for these vehicles as well.

B. Proposed Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels

    In order to carry out the special procedures for fuel economy 
calculations that apply to alternative fuel vehicles, it is necessary, 
for gaseous fuel vehicles, to have a gallons equivalent measurement. 
The 1992 amendments to the Cost Savings Act specified that 100 cubic 
feet of natural gas is deemed to contain 0.823 gallon equivalent of 
gasoline. The 1992 amendments required NHTSA to determine the 
appropriate gallons equivalent measurement for gaseous fuels other than 
natural gas, and a gallon equivalent of such gaseous fuel shall be 
considered to have a fuel content of 15 one-hundredths of a gallon of 
fuel.
    As part of determining appropriate gallons equivalent measurements 
for gaseous fuels, NHTSA consulted with the Department of Energy (DOE) 
Fuels Utilization Data and Analysis Division. NHTSA and DOE agreed that 
the following gaseous fuels could be potential transportation fuels by 
2008: liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and 
hydrogen.
    Pursuant to a contract with DOE, Abacus Technology Corporation 
prepared a report titled ``Energy Equivalent Values of Three 
Alternative Fuels: Liquefied Natural Gas, Liquefied Petroleum Gas, and 
Hydrogen.'' This report is available for review at the docket number 
cited in the heading of this notice. The Abacus report develops gallons 
equivalent measurements for LNG, LPG, and hydrogen gaseous fuels.
    After reviewing the Abacus report, the Environmental Protection 
Agency (EPA) Office of Mobile Sources recommended adding hythane fuel 
(a mixture of hydrogen and natural gas (principally methane)) as a 
gaseous fuel for which a gallon equivalent should be calculated. EPA 
stated that although hythane is currently being used and evaluated on a 
limited basis, there is a possibility that hythane fuel may become 
commercially available as a gaseous fuel. In a follow-up report, which 
is also available in the docket, Abacus developed an appropriate gallon 
equivalent measurement for hythane.
    NHTSA notes that Abacus recommended using lower heating values for 
deriving the gallons equivalent measurements for gaseous fuels because 
this value represents the energy available from combustion in an 
engine.
1. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)
    The first Abacus report noted that the Alternative Motor Fuels Act 
of 1988 included natural gas as an alternative fuel, but did not 
specify its physical state as a compressed gas or a liquefied gas. The 
report assumed that the Act was referring to compressed natural gas, 
which was the more familiar technology when the Act was passed. The 
Abacus report recommended that the same 0.823 gallon equivalent of 
natural gas established in the Alternative Motor Fuels Act be applied 
to LNG based on energy content in British Thermal Unit (BTU)/Standard 
Cubic Feet (SCF), because LNG composition and heat of combustion are 
similar to compressed natural gas.
2. Liquefied Propane Gas (LPG)
    The Gas Processors Association Standard 2140-92 specifies four 
grades of LPG. They are commercial propane, commercial butane, 
commercial butane-propane mixtures, and propane HD-5. Propane HD-5 is 
recognized as the most suitable fuel for internal combustion engines 
operating at moderate to high engine severity. The Abacus report 
concluded that one gallon of LPG, grade HD-5, is equivalent to 0.732 
gallon of gasoline, using a lower heating value.
3. Hydrogen
    The Abacus report concluded that the gallon equivalent of 100 SCF 
of hydrogen is 0.240, using a lower heating value.
4. Hythane
    Hythane is a combination of two gaseous fuels: hydrogen and natural 
gas. Most of the experimental engine work involves the mixtures of 85 
volume percent natural gas and 15 volume percent hydrogen (Hy5). The 
maximum concentration of hydrogen that can be used without potentially 
causing engine problems, such as backfiring, is 15 percent (5 percent 
energy content). The second Abacus report concluded that the gallon 
equivalent of 100 SCF of this hythane mixture is 0.725 using the lower 
heating value.
    NHTSA is proposing to adopt the gallons equivalent measurements for 
LNG, LPG, hydrogen, and hythane recommended by the Abacus reports. The 
agency requests comments on the methodology used to determine the 
proposed gallons equivalent measurements. NHTSA also requests comments 
on whether any other gaseous fuel may potentially be used in 
automobiles in the foreseeable future, and thus, whether gallons 
equivalents for any other gaseous fuels should be established.
    NHTSA plans to add the gallons equivalent measurements to Part 538. 
The agency is proposing a new name for this part to reflect its 
expanded scope.

Regulatory Impacts

A. Executive Order 12866 and DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures

    This notice has not been reviewed under Executive Order 12866. 
NHTSA has considered the impact of this rulemaking action and has 
determined that the action is not ``significant'' under the Department 
of Transportation's regulatory policies and procedures. In this NPRM, 
the agency proposes to set the minimum driving range for all dual 
fueled passenger automobiles other than electric vehicles at 200 miles 
and to establish gallon equivalents for specified gaseous fuels. None 
of the proposed changes will result in an additional burden on 
manufacturers. They would not impose any mandatory requirements but 
would instead implement statutory incentives to encourage the 
manufacture of alternative fuel vehicles. For these reasons, NHTSA 
believes that any impacts on manufacturers will be so minimal as not to 
warrant preparation of a full regulatory evaluation.

B. Regulatory Flexibility Act

    The agency has also considered the effects of this rulemaking 
action under the Regulatory Flexibility Act. I certify that this 
proposed rule, if made final, will not have a significant economic 
impact on a substantial number of small entities. The rationale for 
this certification is that, to the extent that any passenger automobile 
manufacturers qualify as small entities, their number would not be 
substantial. Moreover, conversion of vehicles to dual fuel status with 
the minimum ranges that would be established by this regulation would 
be voluntarily undertaken in order to achieve beneficial CAFE treatment 
of those vehicles. Therefore, no significant costs would be imposed on 
any manufacturers or other small entities.

C. National Environmental Policy Act

    The agency has also analyzed this rule for the purpose of the 
National Environmental Policy Act, and determined that it would not 
have any significant impact on the quality of the human environment. 
Increased evaporative emissions due to added fuel volume would be the 
most important environmental impact of this rulemaking if it induced 
manufacturers to enlarge the size of existing fuel tanks in order to 
produce dual fuel vehicles operating on alcohol or other liquid fuel. 
However, the proposed minimum range would not make it necessary for 
these dual fuel vehicles to have enlarged fuel tanks. Natural gas and 
other gaseous dual fueled automobiles will not expect to increase 
evaporative emissions since gaseous tanks do not normally vent to the 
atmosphere.

D. Paperwork Reduction Act

    The procedures in this proposed rule for passenger automobile 
manufacturers to petition for lower driving ranges are considered to be 
information collection requirements as that term is defined by the 
Office of Management and Budget (OMB) in 5 CFR part 1320. The 
information collection requirements for part 538 have been submitted to 
and approved by the OMB, pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 
U.S.C. 3501 et seq.) This collection of information has been assigned 
OMB Control No. 2127-0554. (Minimum Driving Ranges for Dual Energy 
Passenger Automobiles) and has been approved for use through June 30, 
1996.

E. Federalism

    This action has been analyzed in accordance with the principles and 
criteria contained in Executive Order 12612, and it has been determined 
that the rule does not have sufficient federalism implications to 
warrant the preparation of a Federalism Assessment.

F. Civil Justice Reform

    This proposed rule would not have any retroactive effect and it 
does not preempt any State law. 49 U.S.C. 32909 sets forth a procedure 
for judicial review of automobile fuel economy regulations. That 
section does not require submission of a petition for reconsideration 
or other administrative proceedings before parties may file suit in 
court.

Public Comments

    NHTSA solicits public comments on the issues presented in this 
notice. It is requested, but not required, that 10 copies be submitted.
    All comments must not exceed 15 pages in length (49 CFR 553.21). 
Necessary attachments may be appended to these submissions without 
regard to the 15 page limit. This limitation is intended to encourage 
commenters to detail their primary arguments in a concise fashion.
    If a commenter wishes to submit certain information under a claim 
of confidentiality, three copies of the complete submission, including 
purportedly confidential business information, should be submitted to 
Chief Counsel, NHTSA, at the street address given above, and seven 
copies from which the purportedly confidential information has been 
deleted should be submitted to the Docket Section. A request for 
confidentiality should be accompanied by a cover letter setting forth 
the information specified in the agency's confidential business 
information regulation (49 CFR part 512).
    All comments received before the close of business on the comment 
closing date indicated above for the NPRM will be considered, and will 
be available for examination in the docket at the above address both 
before and after that date.
    To the extent possible, comments filed after the closing date will 
also be considered. Comments received too late in regard to the final 
rule will be considered as suggestions for further rulemaking action. 
Comments on this notice will be available for inspection in the docket. 
NHTSA will continue to file relevant information as it becomes 
available in the docket after the closing date, and it is recommended 
that interested persons continue to examine the docket for new 
material.
    Those persons desiring to be notified upon receipt of their 
comments in the rules docket should enclose a self-addressed, stamped 
postcard in the envelope with their comments. Upon receiving the 
comments, the docket supervisor will return the postcard by mail.

List of Subjects in 49 CFR Part 538

    Energy conservation, Gasoline, Imports, Motor vehicles.

    In consideration of the foregoing, 49 CFR part 538 would be revised 
to read as follows:

PART 538--[REVISED]

    1. Part 538 would be revised to read as follows:

PART 538--MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES

Sec.
538.1  Scope.
538.2  Purpose.
538.3  Applicability.
538.4  Definitions.
538.5  Minimum driving range.
538.6  Measurement of driving range.
538.7  [Reserved]
538.8  Gallon Equivalents for Gaseous Fuels.

    Authority: 49 U.S.C. 32901, 32905, and 32906; delegation of 
authority at 49 CFR 1.50.


Sec. 538.1  Scope.

    This part establishes minimum driving range criteria to aid in 
identifying passenger automobiles that are dual fueled automobiles. It 
also establishes gallon equivalent measurements for gaseous fuels other 
than natural gas.


Sec. 538.2  Purpose.

    The purpose of this part is to specify one of the criteria in 49 
U.S.C. chapter 329 ``Automobile Fuel Economy'' for identifying dual 
fueled passenger automobiles that are manufactured in model years 1993 
through 2004. The fuel economy of a qualifying vehicle is calculated in 
a special manner so as to encourage its production as a way of 
facilitating a manufacturer's compliance with the Corporate Average 
Fuel Economy Standards set forth in part 531 of this chapter. The 
purpose is also to establish gallon equivalent measurements for gaseous 
fuels other than natural gas.


Sec. 538.3  Applicability.

    This part applies to manufacturers of automobiles.


Sec. 538.4  Definitions.

    (a) Statutory terms. (1) The terms alternative fuel, alternative 
fueled automobile, and dual fueled automobile, are used as defined in 
49 U.S.C. 32901(a).
    (2) The terms automobile and passenger automobile, are used as 
defined in 49 U.S.C. 32901(a), and in accordance with the 
determinations in part 523 of this chapter.
    (3) The term manufacturer is used as defined in 49 U.S.C. 
32901(a)(13), and in accordance with part 529 of this chapter.
    (4) The term model year is used as defined in 49 U.S.C. 
32901(a)(15).
    (b)(1) Other terms. The terms average fuel economy, fuel economy, 
and model type are used as defined in subpart A of 40 CFR part 600.
    (2) The term EPA means the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


Sec. 538.5  Minimum driving range.

    (a) The minimum driving range that a passenger automobile must have 
in order to be treated as a dual fueled automobile pursuant to 49 
U.S.C. 32901(c) is 200 miles when operating on its nominal usable fuel 
tank capacity of the alternative fuel, except when the alternative fuel 
is electricity.
    (b) [Reserved]


Sec. 538.6  Measurement of driving range.

    The driving range of a passenger automobile model type is 
determined by multiplying the combined EPA city/highway fuel economy 
rating when operating on the alternative fuel, by the nominal usable 
fuel tank capacity (in gallons), of the fuel tank containing the 
alternative fuel. The combined EPA city/highway fuel economy rating is 
the value determined by the procedures established by the Administrator 
of the EPA under 49 U.S.C. 32904 and set forth in 40 CFR part 600.


Sec. 538.7  [Reserved]


Sec. 538.8  Gallon equivalents for gaseous fuels.

    The gallon equivalent of gaseous fuels, for purposes of 
calculations made under 49 U.S.C. 32905, are listed in Table I:

   Table I.--Gallon Equivalent Measurements for Gaseous Fuels per 100   
                           Standard Cubic Feet                          
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                Gallon  
                            Fuel                              equivalent
                                                             measurement
------------------------------------------------------------------------
Compressed natural gas.....................................        .823 
Liquefied natural gas......................................        .823 
Liquefied petroleum gas (grade HD-5).......................        .732 
Hydrogen...................................................        .240 
Hythane (Hy5)..............................................        .725 
------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Issued on: December 13, 1994.
Barry Felrice,
Associate Administrator for Rulemaking.
[FR Doc. 94-31079 Filed 12-16-94; 8:45 am]
BILLING CODE 4910-59-P

Connect with The Crittenden Automotive Library

The Crittenden Automotive Library on Facebook The Crittenden Automotive Library on Instagram The Crittenden Automotive Library at The Internet Archive The Crittenden Automotive Library on Pinterest The Crittenden Automotive Library on Twitter The Crittenden Automotive Library on Tumblr


The Crittenden Automotive Library

Home Page    About Us    Contribute