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Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines

American Government Special Collections Reference Desk

American Government

Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines

Rodney E. Slater and Howard M. Smolkin
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and Federal Highway Administration
January 14, 1994

[Federal Register: January 14, 1994]



National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Federal Highway Administration

23 CFR Part 1204

[NHTSA Docket No. 93-21; Notice 1]
RIN 2127-AE90

Amendments to Highway Safety Program Guidelines

AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and 
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Department of Transportation 

ACTION: Request for comments.


SUMMARY: Section 2002 of the Intermodal Surface Transportation 
Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA), Highway Safety Programs, requires that 
the uniform guidelines for State Highway Safety Programs include six 
critical programs. The existing 18 Highway Safety Program Guidelines 
currently address four of the six programs identified in ISTEA, but do 
not specifically address Speed Control or Occupant Protection. The 
agencies therefore propose to amend the regulations by adopting 
guidelines for these two programs. The agencies also propose to issue a 
guideline on Roadway Safety, corresponding to the Roadway Safety 
Priority Program Area.
    In addition to three new guidelines, the agencies propose to revise 
six of the existing 18 guidelines to reflect new issues and to 
emphasize program methodology and approaches which have proven to be 
especially successful in these program areas. The guidelines the 
agencies propose to revise are as follows:

Guideline No. 3  Motorcycle Safety
Guideline No. 8  Alcohol in Relation to Highway Safety
Guideline No. 10  Traffic Records
Guideline No. 11  Emergency Medical Services
Guideline No. 14  Pedestrian Safety
Guideline No. 15  Police Traffic Services

The agencies believe that the proposed revisions will provide more 
detailed guidance to the States.

DATES: Comments on this document must be received no later than 
February 28, 1994.

ADDRESSES: Comments should reference the docket and notice numbers of 
this document and be submitted (preferably in ten copies) to: Docket 
Section, room 5109, U.S. Department of Transportation, 400 7th Street, 
SW., Washington, DC 20590. Docket hours are from 9:30 a.m. to 4 p.m.

Chief Counsel, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 7th 
Street, SW., Washington, DC 20590; telephone: (202) 366-1834 or Ms. 
Marlene Markison, Office of Regional Operations, National Highway 
Traffic Safety Administration, 400 7th Street, SW., Washington, DC 
20590; telephone: (202) 366-0166. In FHWA, Mr. Will Baccus, Office of 
Chief Counsel, Federal Highway Administration; telephone: (202) 366-
0780 or Ms. Mila Plosky, Office of Highway Safety, FHWA; telephone: 
(202) 366-6902.



    Section 402 of the Highway Safety Act of 1966 directed the 
Secretary of Transportation to promulgate uniform standards for State 
highway safety programs, specified the subjects of several standards, 
and required States to conform to these uniform standards or risk 
losing portions of their Federal-aid highway funds. Between 1967 and 
1972, the Secretary promulgated 18 Uniform Standards for State Highway 
Safety Programs (published at 23 CFR part 1204).
    Until 1976, the section 402 program was principally directed at 
achieving State and local conformance with the 18 Highway Safety 
Program Standards, which were considered mandatory requirements with 
financial sanctions available for non-compliance. In 1976, Congress 
provided for a more flexible implementation of the program so that the 
Secretary would not have to require State compliance with every uniform 
standard or with each element of every uniform standard. As a result, 
the standards became guidelines for use by the States. Management of 
the program shifted from one focused upon enforcing program standards 
to one focused upon problem identification, countermeasure development 
and evaluation, with the standards to be used as a framework for the 
State programs. Few changes have been made in the guidelines since that 
    Section 2002 of ISTEA, Highway Safety Programs, requires that the 
uniform guidelines for State Highway Safety Programs include programs: 
(1) To reduce injuries and deaths resulting from motor vehicles being 
driven in excess of the posted speed limits; (2) to encourage the 
proper use of occupant protection devices (including the use of safety 
belts and child restraint systems) by occupants of motor vehicles and 
to increase public awareness of the benefit of motor vehicles equipped 
with airbags; (3) to reduce deaths and injuries resulting from persons 
driving motor vehicles while impaired by alcohol or a controlled 
substance; (4) to reduce deaths and injuries resulting from crashes 
involving motor vehicles and motorcycles; (5) to reduce injuries and 
deaths resulting from crashes involving school buses; and (6) to 
improve law enforcement services in motor vehicle accident prevention, 
traffic supervision, and post-accident procedures.
    Four of the areas represented by these six guidelines (i.e., 
Impaired Driving, Occupant Protection, Motorcycle Safety, and Police 
Traffic Services) have previously been identified as National Priority 
Program Areas (under 23 CFR part 1205). Other Priority Areas include 
Emergency Medical Services, Pedestrian/Bicycle Safety, Traffic Records, 
and Roadway Safety. Although Speed Control and School Bus Safety are 
not currently Priority Areas, the agencies are now engaged in another 
rulemaking action and in a separate notice in today's Federal Register 
are considering whether to amend 23 CFR part 1205 to include Speed 
Control and/or School Buses as National Priority Program Areas. 
Further, the Guideline for Pupil Transportation was revised in April of 
1991 and needs no further revision at this time. In addition, section 
4002 of ISTEA requires that State agencies which receive Motor Carrier 
Safety Assistance Program (MCSAP) grants coordinate their respective 
commercial motor vehicle (CMV) safety enforcement plans with the State 
highway safety agency (49 CFR 350). FHWA administers the MCSAP.\1\

    \1\Under MCSAP, States conduct uniform inspections of commercial 
motor vehicles at roadside sites and perform safety reviews of 
carriers to check for compliance with safety and hazardous materials 
regulations. Under the ISTEA, MCSAP was expanded to include 
additional safety activities, such as traffic enforcement, impaired 
driving initiatives, uniform truck and bus accident reporting, 
vehicle weight enforcement, training for hazardous materials 
enforcements, Commercial Drivers License (CDL) enforcement, research 
and development, public education, and drug interdiction efforts. 
Information on CMV inspections and crashes is collected by the 
States and transmitted electronically to FHWA's mainframe through 
the SAFETYNET system. Since all States have access to SAFETYNET, 
information on the system can be valuable in identifying problems 
and improving traffic safety. The agencies encourage States to 
coordinate their section 402 plans and activities with MCSAP where 
appropriate in order to maximize benefits to both programs.

Proposed Addition of Three New Guidelines

    The existing 18 Highway Safety Program Guidelines currently address 
four of the six programs identified in ISTEA; they do not specifically 
address Speed Control or Occupant Protection. Therefore, the agencies 
propose to issue two new guidelines: Highway Safety Program Guideline 
No. 19, Speed Control; and Highway Safety Program Guideline No. 20, 
Occupant Protection. Though Speed Control has always been a component 
of the Police Traffic Services Priority Area, it requires special 
attention in light of the involvement of speed in many traffic crashes. 
The agencies also intend to take this opportunity to propose issuance 
of one additional guideline, which would be identified as Highway 
Safety Program Guideline No. 21, Roadway Safety. The Roadway Safety 
Guideline is a consolidation of the key aspects of various Guidelines 
which relate to the roadway. The addition of these new guidelines will 
result in a formal guideline corresponding to each of the current 
National Priority Program Areas. Because the vast majority of all 
highway safety projects funded under title 23 U.S.C. 402 are designed 
to address one or more of these Priority Program Areas, the existence 
of corresponding guidelines for each will be of great value to the 
States and communities in the design and implementation of highway 
safety programs.

Proposed Guideline #19: Speed Control

    The issue of speed control has received considerable attention by 
NHTSA. Over the course of the agency's history, NHTSA has funded and 
promoted many programs and initiatives addressing the problem. Some 
common conclusions from these programs and initiatives indicate that 
higher speeds and speeds too fast for conditions (whether or not 
travelling in excess of the speed limit) adversely affect the safety of 
    Historically, Speed Control has not been separately identified as a 
National Priority Program Area under 23 CFR part 1204. It has, however, 
been an integral part of the Priority Program Area involving Police 
Traffic Services, resulting in numerous programs at the State and local 
levels. In addition, the FHWA, through the MCSAP, supports speed 
control initiatives as part of an overall traffic enforcement program 
aimed specifically at commercial motor vehicles. The agencies are 
currently engaged in rulemaking to add Speed Control as a separate 
National Priority Program Area. This proposed guideline is written to 
assist States and communities in the design and implementation of 
effective Speed Control Programs. The guideline sets forth 
recommendations for the development and management of effective speed 
control plans, visible public information and education efforts to gain 
voluntary compliance, promotion of the use of new technology in the 
enforcement of speed laws, the establishment of safe and reasonable 
speed limits, and effective training for police officers involved in 
speed control.

Proposed Guideline #20: Occupant Protection

    When the original highway safety program standards were established 
by NHTSA and FHWA, an occupant protection program was not among them. 
Although lap and shoulder belts have been required for front outboard 
positions and lap belts for all other seating positions in all 
passenger cars sold in the U.S. after January 1, 1968, belt usage 
remained very low through the 1970's. In 1970, under the Federal Motor 
Carrier Safety Regulations, FHWA required drivers of commercial motor 
vehicles in interstate commerce to use a safety belt if it was 
installed in the vehicle. During the 1980's, States participating in 
MCSAP adopted this requirement for commercial motor vehicle drivers in 
intrastate commerce. During the 1970's, a national Highway Safety Needs 
Study indicated that significant reductions in highway losses could be 
achieved with increased public use of occupant protection devices. 
NHTSA began to explore promotional activities to encourage the public 
to buckle up.
    In 1982, the agencies issued a final rule which identified six 
National Priority Program Areas that were considered the most effective 
in reducing highway deaths and injuries. Occupant Protection was 
included as one of the six most effective programs.
    Although the agencies never issued a highway safety program 
standard or guideline, occupant protection has remained a National 
Priority Program Area. Recognition of the importance of this program 
increased substantially during the 1980's with evidence that safety 
belts are effective in preventing death and serious injury in 40-50 
percent of all crashes; passage or upgrading of child safety seat usage 
laws in every State; passage of safety belt use laws in a majority of 
States; major increases in funding at the Federal, State and local 
levels; and significant increases in occupant protection use rates. The 
agencies have conducted two subsequent rulemakings to review the 
effectiveness of the Priority Program Areas. No comments have been 
received from the public suggesting that the area of occupant 
protection should be deleted from the list of National Priorities.
    The life-saving benefits of occupant protection programs are now 
widely recognized. The proposed Occupant Protection program guideline 
has been prepared to provide current information on effective program 
elements for States to use in producing and assessing their programs. 
The proposed guideline reflects the experience of States in program 
content and highlights state-of-the-art knowledge in highway safety 
programs relating to occupant protection. The guideline sets forth 
recommendations for effective management and evaluation of occupant 
protection programs, legislative initiatives and employment policies 
mandating use of occupant protection devices, strategic efforts to 
enforce use laws and policies, public information efforts to reinforce 
use laws or policies and to inform the public of enforcement efforts, 
and education programs to promote occupant protection through various 
organizations including health and medical groups, schools, and 
employers throughout the State.

Proposed Guideline #21: Roadway Safety

    When the original 18 standards were established under the Highway 
Safety Act of 1966, FHWA was responsible for developing and 
implementing programs relating to the roadway environment. Thus, 
Standards 9, 12, 13, and the roadway-related aspects of Standard 14 
(Pedestrian Safety) fell under FHWA's purview. In 1981, when FHWA and 
NHTSA identified six highway safety program areas which were considered 
the most effective, and thus designated National Priority Program 
Areas, one of the six was FHWA's Safety Construction and Operational 
    In 1987, when the agencies reviewed the effectiveness of the 
various programs and retained the six priority areas, the Safety 
Construction and Operational Improvement Priority Program was changed 
to ``Roadway Safety'' to encompass a wider breadth of safety activities 
which are related to the driving environment. Roadway Safety involves 
various highway safety activities which relate to safety aspects of the 
roadway environment. Currently, many roadway safety-related activities 
are described in three of the original Highway Safety Program 

Guideline #9  Identification and Surveillance of Accident Locations
Guideline #12  Highway Design, Construction and Maintenance
Guideline #13  Traffic Engineering Services

Further, there are additional roadway-related activities included in 
the pedestrian and bicycle safety initiatives which are outlined in the 
Pedestrian and Bicycle Guideline No. 14.
    In order to more effectively organize and consolidate the roadway 
safety components from each of these various guidelines, the agencies 
propose to create a new guideline entitled ``Roadway Safety''. While 
the four related guidelines will remain unchanged, the new Roadway 
Safety Guideline highlights selected aspects from these four guidelines 
which are recommended to be included in any State Roadway Safety 
    The addition of these three new guidelines will ensure that 
guidelines reflecting the current state-of-the-art are available for 
each of the National Priority Program Areas listed at 23 CFR part 1205.

Proposed Revision of Six Existing Guidelines

    Since the original program standards were issued in the early 
1970's, much has changed in both technology and societal behavior which 
affects the methodology and approach to solving highway safety 
problems. When the standards were originally issued, there were no 
State laws requiring safety belt or child safety seat use, there was 
little public awareness about drunk driving, and highway safety was not 
yet a matter of great public concern. Because the highway safety 
environment has changed so dramatically during the past twenty years, 
the agencies propose to update the guidelines to provide current 
information on effective program content for States to use in producing 
and assessing their traffic safety programs. Each of the proposed 
revised guidelines reflects the experience of States in traffic safety 
program content and highlights state-of-the-art knowledge in highway 
safety. They provide a framework for producing and assessing a balanced 
highway safety program and a tool with which States can assess the 
effectiveness of their own programs.
    The agencies propose to update only those guidelines which 
correspond to the programs currently designated as Priority Areas. The 
agencies strongly believe that focusing attention on the priority 
programs has the greatest impact on highway safety. The revised 
guidelines will emphasize these areas of national concern and highlight 
the effective countermeasures which are available, while continuing to 
permit States to receive funding for additional areas of local concern 
when justified, and thus ensure that section 402 resources are being 
allocated in the most effective manner.

Proposed Revision to Guideline No. 3--Motorcycle Safety

    The elements of the present Motorcycle Safety Guideline No. 3 
address the following safety issues: (1) Preventing or reducing the 
severity of head injuries; (2) determining whether novice motorcyclists 
have the basic skills; and (3) assuring that the vehicles have minimum 
safety equipment and are adequately maintained.
    The proposed new Motorcycle Safety Guideline No. 3 continues to 
emphasize the importance of motorcyclists wearing helmets and places 
great emphasis on improving the knowledge and skills of all motorcycle 
operators through motorcycle rider education and training programs. The 
guideline also strongly encourages states and communities to develop 
comprehensive motorcycle safety programs that address (1) the effective 
management of the program through a central or lead agency; (2) the 
requirement for special licensing exams; (3) the influence of alcohol 
and other drugs on motorcyclists; and (4) the issues of motorcycle 
conspicuity and motorist awareness.

Proposed Revision to Guideline No. 8--Alcohol in Relation to Highway 

    The current Guideline No. 8 contains the elements which provide the 
basic structure underlying the drinking and driving laws of the states. 
These include the use of chemical tests, the establishment of a BAC 
value (.10%) which is presumptive evidence of intoxication and the 
enactment of laws establishing the ``implied consent'' of a motorist to 
submit to a chemical test. The other components of the current 
guideline relate to the collection of data on alcohol-related 
fatalities, and the specifications and qualifications of chemical 
testing equipment and personnel administering the tests. The primary 
effort of the guideline was to establish some reasonable conformity 
with a uniform legal basis for detecting and prosecuting drunk drivers.
    Under the current guideline, the States follow a ``specific 
deterrence'' approach designed to remove from the road those who had 
been arrested for DWI. However, the majority of alcohol-related crashes 
involve drivers with no previous DWI arrest; moreover, the majority of 
intoxicated drivers on the road go undetected.
    The proposed Guideline No. 8, entitled ``Impaired Driving'', 
reflects a comprehensive, community-based approach with goals of (1) 
preventing people from being killed and injured in the short-term 
through general deterrence programs, and (2) permanently reducing the 
number of drinking and drugged drivers through long-term prevention and 
intervention measures.
    Under the general deterrence approach, the objective is to increase 
the perceived risk by the drinking driver that he or she will be caught 
and convicted of DWI. The proposed guideline recommends states 
establish a BAC value of .08% as the illegal per se level, at or above 
which a drive is considered to be driving while intoxicated; implement 
specific countermeasures designed to better equip and train police 
officers in recognizing, tracking, and arresting impaired drivers; 
enable prompt suspension of drivers licenses through streamlined 
administrative procedures; result in punitive action such as fines, 
community service, jail or the suspension of driving privileges; and 
ensure the public is fully aware of the increased enforcement efforts.
    Under the ``prevention and intervention'' approach, the guideline 
recommends strategies which are aimed at permanently changing the 
public's attitudes and behaviors concerning drinking and driving. These 
include public information and education for students in schools and 
colleges, for adults through programs in the workplace and for the 
general population through programs in health care settings. Other 
education efforts include promotion of designated driver programs, 
responsible alcohol service efforts, citizen support and outreach 
efforts, and the establishment of self-sufficient programs requiring 
offenders to defray program costs.
    The States should also be aware of and enforce alcohol and drug 
requirements for CMV drivers. The FHWA established a BAC level of .04 
percent as the threshold at which a CMV driver is considered to be 
under the influence of alcohol and subject to disqualification from 
driving ranging from one year to life. In addition, a CMV driver found 
to have any measurable or detectable alcohol level in his or her system 
while operating a CMV is prohibited from driving for 24 hours. FHWA 
also requires motor carriers to have specific drug testing programs of 
CMV drivers in place.

Proposed Revisions to Guideline No. 10--Traffic Records

    The current Traffic Records Guideline is directed toward improving 
the operational efficiency of record systems involving crash 
statistics, driver licensing, vehicle registration, vehicle inspection, 
traffic citations, roadway related data, EMS, and driver education. In 
the past, however, the operational condition of many of these record 
systems maintained by the States was insufficient to provide a reliable 
total information base. The growth of the files as well as increased 
processing costs caused administrators to seek methods of modernizing 
the files and improving compatibility of related systems.
    The proposed Guideline No. 10 recommends methods to establish 
comprehensive traffic records systems to enable states to use data to 
identify emerging traffic safety problems, develop appropriate 
countermeasures, and evaluate program performance. The guideline 
focuses attention on the need to link computer systems, establish 
uniform data elements including CMV crash data and integrate data 
elements where appropriate. In addition, the proposed guideline 
suggests innovative driver licensing techniques that will effectively 
identify problem drivers whose driver licenses have been suspended or 
revoked in other states.

Proposed Revisions to Guideline No. 11--Emergency Medical Services

    The current Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Guideline No. 11 is 
based upon the philosophy that by improving pre-hospital emergency 
medical services in general, the system will serve the highway-injured 
patient better. The focus of programs under this guideline has been 
upon those elements of emergency medical care which precede the 
patient's arrival in a hospital emergency department. This includes 
setting standards and requirements for qualified and trained personnel, 
the types and number of ambulances and other emergency response 
vehicles, communication systems and equipment, and coordination with 
other components of the medical care system.
    With the maturing of the nationwide EMS Program, the proposed EMS 
Guideline No. 11 reflects a new emphasis and expanded focus for 
emergency medical services. The proposed guideline recommends 
improvements to the entire emergency medical services system for 
highway-injured patients. The elements deemed most effective in 
improving trauma care for the highway-injured patient include a common 
phone number (e.g., 9-1-1) for quick public access, communication 
between ambulances and hospitals, trained first responders and pre-
hospital personnel, adequate and appropriate transportation coverage, 
highly trained in-hospital personnel at specialized trauma care 
centers, pre-hospital and hospital coordination, and improved data on 
trauma patients. The proposed guideline also recommends improved public 
information, education and injury prevention efforts.

Proposed Revisions to Guideline No. 14--Pedestrian Safety

    The current Pedestrian Guideline No. 14 does not address Bicycle 
Safety Programs. The guideline was developed when Pedestrian Safety was 
not a National Priority Program Area and before many countermeasures 
were proven to be effective. The current guideline is narrowly focused 
on single issue countermeasure activities which involved primarily the 
inventory of the pedestrian problem; education, particularly aimed at 
young school children; and engineering.
    In a NHTSA/FHWA joint NPRM published in the Federal Register on May 
3, 1991, the agencies stated that effective countermeasures have been 
developed to address both Pedestrian and Bicycle safety problems and 
specifically, concerns caused by an increase in the elderly population 
and the growth in popularity of walking, jogging and bicycling. On 
October 4, 1991, a Final Rule was issued making Pedestrian and Bicycle 
Safety a National Priority program area.
    The proposed Guideline No. 14 addresses both pedestrian and bicycle 
safety and describes countermeasures that are comprehensive in nature, 
involve a multi-disciplinary approach. These require the combined and 
coordinated support of law enforcement, education, public health, 
driver education and licensing, transportation engineering, and public 
communications. In addition, the guideline provides for legislative and 
regulatory solutions, outlines methods to enlist the support of 
individuals and organizations outside the traditional highway safety 
community, features innovative school-based practices, and highlights 
traffic engineering components that promote pedestrian and bicycle 
safety while reducing traffic congestion.

Proposed Revisions to Guideline No. 15--Police Traffic Services

    The current Police Traffic Service Guideline No. 15 emphasizes the 
use of police patrols to enforce traffic laws, improve traffic flow, 
prevent crashes, aid the injured, document each crash, supervise 
cleanup, and restore traffic flow. The guideline provides minimum 
standards by which a police department can measure its quality in 
traffic services, and suggests uniform training procedures, as well as 
standardized records and reporting systems. The guideline also 
addresses selective assignment of personnel and coordination with other 
agencies and neighboring jurisdictions and recommends in-service 
training for police personnel.
    The proliferation of highway safety legislation in recent years, 
such as tougher DWI laws, child restraint and seat belt use laws, and 
commercial motor vehicle safety laws, combined with an increased demand 
for other law enforcement services, has placed a strain on police 
agencies during a time of reduced budgets, manpower and resources. The 
proposed Guideline No. 15 assists law enforcement agencies by 
addressing how to do more with less. Such efforts include developing 
and participating in comprehensive programs; enlisting support of the 
media, community leaders, business and volunteer/activist groups; 
developing resource management plans; and training officers in state-
of-the-art enforcement curricula.

Other Guidelines Remain Unchanged

    The following 12 guidelines currently contained in Sec. 1204 will 
remain intact and unchanged by this proposal:

Guideline No. 1  Periodic Motor Vehicle Inspection
Guideline No. 2  Motor Vehicle Registration
Guideline No. 4  Driver Education
Guideline No. 5  Driver Licensing
Guideline No. 6  Codes and Laws
Guideline No. 7  Traffic Courts
Guideline No. 9  Identification and Surveillance of Accident 
Guideline No. 12  Highway Design, Construction, and Maintenance
Guideline No. 13  Traffic Engineering Services
Guideline No. 16  Debris Hazard Control and Cleanup
Guideline No. 17  Pupil Transportation Safety (Rev. 4/91)
Guideline No. 18  Accident Investigation and Reporting

    It should be noted that the guidelines are not binding on the 
States. A State's decision not to adopt a portion of a guideline, for 
example, would not entail penalties for the State. Nonetheless, the 
agencies encourage the use of the recommendations contained in these 
guidelines to optimize the effectiveness of highway safety programs 
conducted at the State and local level.


    Interested persons are invited to submit comments on this proposal. 
It is requested but not required that 10 copies be submitted.
    In order to expedite the submission of comments, copies of this 
notice are being mailed to all Governors, Governors' Representatives 
for Highway Safety, and State EMS Directors.
    Comments should not exceed 15 pages in length. Necessary 
attachments may be appended to these submissions without regard to the 
15-page limit. This limitation is intended to encourage commenters to 
detail their primary arguments in a concise fashion.
    All comments received before the closing date indicated above will 
be considered, and will be available for examination in the docket at 
the above address both before and after that date. To the extent 
possible, comments filed after the closing date will also be 
considered. However, the revisions to these guidelines may proceed at 
any time after that date. The agencies will continue to file relevant 
material in the docket as it becomes available after the closing date, 
and it is recommended that interested persons continue to examine the 
docket for new material.
    Those persons desiring to be notified upon receipt of their 
comments in the docket should enclose, in the envelope with their 
comments, a pre-addressed stamped postcard. Upon receiving the 
comments, the docket supervisor will return the postcard by mail.

Economic and Other Effects

    The agencies have considered the impacts that would be associated 
with this proposed action, and determined that it is not significant 
within the meaning of Executive Order 12866 or the Department of 
Transportation Regulatory Policies and Procedures. The guidelines 
contained in part 1204 are advisory, not mandatory. Accordingly, a full 
regulatory evaluation is not necessary.
    Since this matter relates to grants, the notice and comment 
requirements established in the Administrative Procedure Act, 5 U.S.C. 
553, are not applicable. Because the agencies are not required to 
published a notice of proposed rulemaking regarding this rule, the 
agencies are not required to analyze the effect of this rule on small 
entities, in accordance with the Regulatory Flexibility Act. The 
agencies have nonetheless evaluated the effects of this notice on small 
entities. Based on the evaluation, I certify that this notice will not 
have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of small 
entities. Accordingly, the preparation of a Regulatory Flexibility 
Analysis is unnecessary.

Environmental Impacts

    The agencies have also analyzed this action for the purpose of the 
National Environmental Policy Act. The agencies have determined that 
this action will not have any effect on the human environment.

Federalism Assessment

    This action has been analyzed in accordance with the principles and 
criteria contained in Executive Order 12612 and it has been determined 
that it has no federalism implication that warrants the preparation of 
a federalism assessment.

List of Subjects in 23 CFR Part 1204

    Grant programs, Highway safety.

    In consideration of the foregoing, the agencies propose to amend 23 
CFR part 1204 as follows:


    1. The authority citation for part 1204 would continue to read as 

    Authority: 23 U.S.C. 402; delegations of authority at 49 CFR 
1.48 and 1.50.

Sec. 1204.4  [Amended]

    2. In Sec. 1204.4, the following items would be added to the list 
of Highway Safety Program Guideline Numbers and Titles contained in the 
first paragraph:

Sec. 1204.4  Highway Safety Program Guidelines.

* * * * *
    19  Speed control.
    20  Occupant protection.
    21  Roadway safety.
    3. In Sec. 1204.4 Guideline Nos. 3, 8, 10, 11, 14 and 15 would be 
revised and Guideline Nos. 19, 20 and 21 would be added to read as 

Sec. 1204.4  Highway Safety Program Guidelines.

* * * * *

Highway Safety Program Guideline

No. 3

Motorcycle Safety

    Each State, in cooperation with its political subdivisions, should 
have a comprehensive program to promote motorcycle safety. To be 
effective in reducing the number of motorcycle crash deaths and 
injuries, State programs should address the use of helmet and other 
protective gear, proper licensing, impaired riding, rider training, 
conspicuity, and motorist awareness. This Motorcycle Safety Program 
Guideline will assist States and local communities in the development 
and implementation of effective motorcycle safety programs.

I. Program Management

    Each State should identify the nature and extent of its motorcycle 
safety problems, establish goals and objectives for the State's 
motorcycle safety program, and implement projects to reach the goals 
and objectives. State motorcycle safety plans should:

    Designate a lead agency for motorcycle safety;
    Develop funding sources;
    Collect and analyze data on motorcycle safety;
    Identify the State's motorcycle safety problem areas;
    Develop programs (with specific projects) to address problems;
    Coordinate motorcycle projects with those for the general 
motoring public; and
    Integrate motorcycle safety into community traffic safety 

II. Motorcycle Personal Protective Equipment

    Each State should encourage motorcycle operators and passengers to 
use the following protective equipment:

    Motorcycle helmets (which should be required by law);
    Proper clothing, including gloves, boots, long pants, and a 
durable long-sleeved jacket; and
    Eye (which should be required by law) and face protection.

    Additionally, each passenger should be provided a seat and 

III. Motorcycle Operator Licensing

    States should require every person who operates a motorcycle on 
public roadways to pass an examination designed especially for 
motorcycle operation and to hold a license endorsement specifically 
authorizing motorcycle operation. Each State should have a motorcycle 
licensing system that requires:

    Motorcycle operator's manual;
    Motorcycle license examination, including knowledge and skill 
tests, and State licensing medical criteria;
    License examiner training;
    Motorcycle license endorsement;
    Motorcycle license renewal requirements;
    Learner's permit issued for a period of 90 days and only twice 
per applicant; and
    Penalties for violation of motorcycle licensing requirements.

IV. Motorcycle Rider Education and Training

    Safe motorcycle operation requires specialized training by 
qualified instructors. Each State should establish a State Motorcycle 
Rider Education Program that provides for:

    Source of program funding;
    State organization to administer the program;
    Use of Motorcycle Safety Foundation curriculum or equivalent 
State-approved curriculum;
    Reasonable availability of rider education courses for all 
interested residents of legal riding age;
    Instructor training and certification;
    Incentives for successful course completion such as licensing 
skills test exemption;
    Quality control of the program;
    Ability to purchase insurance for the program;
    Permission to spend money in other motorcycle safety program 
areas as deemed appropriate;
    State guidelines for conduct of the program; and Program 

V. Motorcycle Operation Under the Influence of Alcohol or Other Drugs

    Each State should ensure that programs addressing drunk and drugged 
driving include a focus on motorcycles. The following programs should 
include an emphasis on impaired motorcyclists.

    Community traffic safety programs;
    Public information and education campaigns;
    Youth impaired driving programs;
    Law enforcement programs;
    Judge and prosecutor training programs;
    Anti-drunk and drugged driving organizations; and
    College and school programs.

VI. Motorcycle Conspicuity and Motorist Awareness Programs

    State motorcycle safety programs should emphasize the issues of 
rider conspicuity and motorist awareness of motorcycles. These programs 
should address:

    Daytime use of motorcycle lights;
    Brightly colored clothing and reflective materials for 
motorcycle riders;
    Lane positioning of motorcycles to increase vehicle visibility;
    Reasons why motorists do not see motorcycles; and
    Ways that other motorists can increase their awareness of 
* * * * *

Highway Safety Program Guideline

No. 8

Impaired Driving

    Each State, in cooperation with its political subdivisions, should 
have a comprehensive program to combat impaired driving. This guideline 
describes the areas that each State's program should address. 
Throughout this guideline, ``impaired driving'' means operating any 
motor vehicle while one's faculties are affected by alcohol or other 
drugs, medications, or other substances. ``Impaired driving'' includes, 
but is not limited to, impairment as defined in State statutes.

I. Prevention

    Each State should have prevention programs to reduce impaired 
driving through approaches commonly associated with public health--
altering social norms, changing risky or dangerous behaviors, and 
creating protective environments. Prevention and public health programs 
promote activities to educate the public on the effects of alcohol and 
other drugs, limit alcohol and drug availability, and prevent those 
impaired by alcohol and drugs from driving. Prevention programs are 
typically carried out in schools, work sites, medical and health care 
facilities, and community groups. Each State should implement a system 
of impaired driving prevention activities and to work with the public 
health community to foster health and reduce traffic-related injuries.

A. Public Information and Education for Prevention

    States should develop and implement public information and 
education (PI&E) programs directed at impaired driving. Programs should 
start at the State level and extend to communities through State 
assistance, model programs, and public encouragement. States should:

    Have a statewide plan, program, and coordinator for all impaired 
driving PI&E activities;
    Develop their own PI&E campaigns and materials, either by 
adapting materials from the Federal government or other States, or 
by creating new campaigns and materials;
    Encourage and support communities to implement awareness 
programs at the local level;
    Encourage businesses and private organizations to participate in 
impaired driving PI&E campaigns; and
    Encourage media to support impaired driving highway safety 
issues by reporting on programs, activities (including enforcement 
campaigns), alcohol-related arrests, and alcohol-related crashes.

B. School Programs

    Student programs, including kindergarten through college and trade 
school, play a critical role in preventing impaired driving. States 

    Implement K-12 traffic safety education, with appropriate 
emphasis on impaired driving, as part of a comprehensive health 
education program;
    Establish and support student safety clubs and activities and 
create a statewide network linking these groups;
    Establish liaisons with higher education institutions to 
encourage policies to reduce alcohol, other drug, and traffic safety 
problems on college campuses;
    Promote alcohol- and drug-free events throughout the school 
year, with particular emphasis on high-risk times such as prom, 
spring break, and graduation;
    Coordinate closely with anti-drug education efforts and 
    Develop working relationships with school health personnel as a 
means of providing information to students about a variety of 
traffic safety and health behaviors; and
    Make effective use of criminal justice, medical, or other 
professionals through presentations in the classroom or assembly 

C. Employer Programs

    States should provide information and technical assistance to all 
employers, encouraging them to offer programs to reduce impaired 
driving by employees and their families. These programs should include:

    Model policies for impaired driving and other traffic safety 
issues, including safety belt use and speeding;
    Management training to recognize and address alcohol and drug 
    Education and treatment programs for employees; and
    Employee awareness activities.

    States should especially encourage companies and businesses to 
provide impaired driving programs to their youthful employees. The 
States should also be familiar with FHWA's drug and alcohol 
requirements for employers of CMV drivers.

D. Responsible Alcohol Service

    States should promote responsible alcohol service policies and 
practices in the retail alcohol service industry, including package 
stores, restaurants, and taverns, through well-publicized and enforced 
laws, regulations, and policies. States should:

    Implement and enforce programs to eliminate the sale of 
alcoholic beverages to those under 21 years of age;
    Promote alcohol server and service programs, including 
assessments, written policies, and training;
    Ensure adequate alcohol control regulations dealing with issues 
such as service to visibly intoxicated patrons, elimination of 
``happy hours'', and availability of food and non-alcoholic 
    Provide adequate resources (including budget, staff, and 
training) to enforce alcohol beverage control regulations;
    Promote the display of responsible alcohol use and drinking and 
driving information in alcohol sales and service establishments;
    Promote establishment participation in designated driver, safe 
rides, and other alternative transportation programs; and
    Provide that commercial establishments may be held responsible 
for damages caused by any patron who was served alcohol when visibly 

E. Transportation Alternatives

    States should promote alternative transportation programs that 
enable impaired drinkers to reach their destinations without driving. 
Alternative transportation programs include:

    Designated drivers; and
    Safe rides.

II. Deterrence

    Each State should have a deterrence program to reduce impaired 
driving through activities to create the maximum possible perception of 
detection, arrest and punishment among persons who might be tempted to 
drive under the influence of alcohol or other drugs, including CMV 
drivers. Close coordination with law enforcement agencies on the 
municipal, county, and State levels is needed to create and sustain the 
perceived risk of being detected and arrested. Specialized traffic 
enforcement efforts, such as MCSAP, also serve as a core element in the 
detection of impaired drivers. Equally close coordination with courts 
and the motor vehicle licensing and registration agency is needed to 
enhance the fear of punishment. Effective use of all available media is 
essential to create and maintain a strong public awareness of impaired 
driving enforcement and sanctions.
    Each State should implement a system of activities to deter 
impaired driving. The deterrence system should include legislation, 
public information and education, enforcement, prosecution, 
adjudication, criminal sanctions, driver licensing, and vehicle 
registration activities. The goal should be to increase the perception 
and probability of arrest for violators and the imposition of swift and 
sure sanctions.

A. Laws To Deter Impaired Driving

    States should enact laws that define and prohibit impaired driving 
in broad and readily enforceable terms, facilitates the acquisition of 
evidence against impaired drivers, and permit a broad range of 
administrative and judicial penalties and actions. These laws should:

    Define impaired driving offenses--

    Establish .08 Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) as the blood 
alcohol level at or above which it is illegal to operate a motor 
vehicle (``illegal per se'');
    Establish .04 BAC as the illegal per se blood alcohol level for 
commercial truck and bus operators, as provided by commercial driver 
license regulations;
    Establish that it is illegal per se for persons under the age of 
21 (the legal drinking age) to drive with any measurable amount of 
alcohol in their blood, breath, or urine;
    Establish that driving under the influence of other drugs 
(whether illegal, prescription, or over-the-counter) is unlawful and 
is treated similarly to driving under the influence of alcohol;
    Establish vehicular homicide or causing personal injury while 
under the influence of alcohol as a separate offense; and
    Prohibit open alcohol containers and consumption of alcohol in 
motor vehicles.

    Provide for effective enforcement of these laws--

    Authorize police to conduct checkpoints, in which vehicles are 
stopped on a nondiscriminatory basis to determine whether or not the 
operators are driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs;
    Authorize police to use a preliminary breath test for a vehicle 
operator stopped for a suspected impaired driving offense;
    Authorize police to test for impairing drugs other than alcohol;
    Include implied consent provisions that permit the use of 
chemical tests and that allow the arresting officer to require more 
than one test of a vehicle operator stopped for a suspected impaired 
driving offense;
    Require prompt and certain license revocation or suspension for 
persons who refuse to take a chemical test to determine whether they 
were driving while intoxicated (``implied consent''); and
    Require mandatory blood alcohol concentration testing whenever a 
law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that a driver 
has committed an alcohol-related offense.

    Provide effective penalties for these offenses--

    Require prompt and certain administrative license revocation or 
suspension of at least 90 days for persons determined by chemical 
test to violate the State's BAC limit;
    Provide for increasingly more severe penalties for repeat 
offenders, including lengthy license revocation, substantial 
criminal fines, jail, and/or impoundment or confiscation of license 
plates or vehicles registered by the offender;
    Provide for more stringent criminal penalties for those 
convicted of more serious offenses, such as vehicular homicide;
    Contain special provisions for youth under the age of 21 that 
mandate driver's license suspension for any violations of laws 
regarding the use or possession of alcohol or other drugs; and
    Establish victim assistance and victim restitution programs and 
require the use of a victim impact statement prior to sentencing in 
all Driving While Intoxicated (DWI) cases where death or serious 
injury occurred.

B. Public Information and Education for Deterrence

    States should implement public information and education (PI&E) 
programs to maximize public perception of the risks of being caught and 
punished for impaired driving. Public information programs should be:

    Seasonally focused; and

C. Enforcement

    States should implement comprehensive enforcement programs to 
maximize the likelihood of detecting, investigating, arresting, and 
convicting impaired drivers. These programs should:

    Secure a commitment to rigorous DWI enforcement from the top 
levels of police management and State and local government;
    Provide state-of-the-art training for police officers, including 
Standardized Field Sobriety Testing (SFST) and Drug Evaluation and 
Classification (DEC);
    Provide adequate equipment and facilities, including preliminary 
and evidentiary breath test equipment;
    Deploy patrol resources effectively, using cooperative efforts 
of various State and local police agencies as appropriate;
    Maximize the likelihood of violator-officer contact;
    Make regular use of sobriety checkpoints;
    Facilitate the arrest process;
    Implement state-of-the-art post-arrest investigation of 
apprehended impaired drivers;
    Emphasize enforcement of youth impaired driving and drinking age 
laws; and
    Emphasize enforcement of laws regulating alcohol or drug 
impairment by CMV drivers.

D. Prosecution

    States should implement a comprehensive program for visible and 
aggressive prosecution of impaired driving cases. These programs 

    Give DWI cases high priority for prosecution;
    Provide sufficient resources to prosecute cases presented by law 
enforcement efforts;
    Facilitate uniformity and consistency in prosecution of impaired 
driving cases;
    Provide training for prosecutors so they can obtain high rates 
of conviction and seek appropriate sanctions for offenders;
    Prohibit plea bargaining in DWI cases, through appropriate 
    Encourage vigorous prosecution of alcohol-related fatality and 
injury cases under both DWI and general criminal statutes; and
    Ensure that prosecutors are knowledgeable and prepared to 
prosecute youthful offenders appropriately.

E. Adjudication

    The effectiveness of prosecution and enforcement efforts is lost 
without support and strength in adjudication. States should implement a 
comprehensive impaired driving adjudication program to:

    Provide sufficient resources to adjudicate cases and manage the 
dockets brought before them;
    Facilitate uniformity and consistency in adjudication of 
impaired driving cases;
    Give judges the skills necessary to appropriately adjudicate 
impaired driving cases;
    Provide similar training to administrative hearing officers who 
hear administrative license revocation appeals;
    Inform the judiciary about technical evidence presented in 
impaired driving cases, including SFST and DEC testimony;
    Educate the judiciary in appropriate and aggressive sanctions 
for offenders including violators of commercial motor vehicle safety 
regulations; and
    Ensure that judges are knowledgeable and prepared to adjudicate 
youthful offenders in an appropriate and aggressive manner.

F. Licensing

    Driver licensing actions can be an effective means for preventing, 
deterring, and monitoring impaired driving. In addition to the license 
sanctions for impaired driving offenses discussed earlier, States 

    Issue provisional licenses to novice drivers;
    Provide for license suspension for driver under age 21 who 
drives with a BAC exceeding .02 (or some other low value);
    Issue distinctive licenses to drivers under the age of 21;
    Monitor licensing records to identify high risk drivers for 
referral to education or remediation programs;
    Ensure the accurate and timely reporting of alcohol and drug 
violations as proscribed by the Commercial Drivers License (CDL) 
    Assure that all licensing records are used to help assess 
whether a driver requires alcohol or drug treatment; and
    Actively participate in the Driver License Compact to facilitate 
the exchange of driver license information between jurisdictions.

III. Treatment and Rehabilitation

    Many first-time impaired driving offenders and most repeat 
offenders have substantial substance abuse problems that affect their 
entire lives, not just their driving. They have been neither prevented 
nor deterred from impaired driving. Each State should implement a 
system to identify and refer these drivers to appropriate substance 
abuse treatment programs to change their dangerous behavior.

A. Diagnosis and Screening

    States should have a systematic program to evaluate persons who 
have been convicted of an impaired driving offense to determine if they 
have an alcohol or drug abuse problem. This evaluation should:

    Be required by law;
    Be conducted by qualified personnel prior to sentencing; and
    Be used to decide whether a substance abuse treatment program 
should be part of the sanctions imposed.

B. Treatment and Rehabilitation

    States should establish and maintain programs to treat alcohol and 
other drug dependent persons referred through traffic courts and other 
sources. These programs should:

    Ensure that those referred for impaired driving offenses are not 
permitted to drive again until their substance abuse problems are 
under control;
    Be conducted in addition to, not as a substitute for, license 
restrictions and other sanctions; and
    Be conducted separately for youth.

IV. Program Management

    Good program management produces effective programs. Planning and 
coordination are especially important for impaired driving activities, 
since many different parties are involved. Each State's impaired 
driving program management system should have an established process 
for managing its planning (including problem identification), program 
control, and evaluation activities. The system should provide for 
community traffic safety programs (CTSPs), State and local task forces, 
data analysis, and funding. It also should include planning and 
coordination of activities with other agencies involved in impaired 
driving programs, such as MCSAP.

A. State Program Planning

    States should develop and implement an overall plan for all 
impaired driving activities. The plan should:

    Be based on careful problem definition that makes use of crash 
and driver record data; and
    Direct State and community resources toward effective measures 
that address the State's impaired driving issues.

B. Program Control

    States should establish procedures to ensure that program 
activities are implemented as intended. The procedures should provide 
for systematic monitoring and review of ongoing programs to:

    Detect and correct problems quickly;
    Measure progress in achieving established goals and objectives; 
    Ensure that appropriate data are collected for evaluation.

C. State and Local Task Forces and Community Traffic Safety Programs

    States should encourage the development of State and community 
impaired driving task forces and community traffic safety programs. 
States should:

    Use these groups to bring a wide variety of interests and 
resources to bear on impaired driving issues; and
    Ensure that Federal, State, and local organizations coordinate 
impaired driving activities, so that the activities complement 
rather than compete with each other.

D. Data and Records

    States should establish and maintain records systems for accidents, 
arrests, dispositions, driver licenses, and vehicle registrations. 
Especially important are tracking systems which can provide information 
on every driver arrested for DWI to determine the disposition of the 
case and compliance with sanctions. These records systems should be:

    Able to be linked to each other; and
    Readily accessible to police, courts, and planners.

E. Evaluation

    States should evaluate all impaired driving system activities 
regularly to ensure that programs are effective and scarce resources 
are allocated appropriately. Evaluation should be:

    Included in initial program planning to ensure that appropriate 
data are available and that adequate resources are allocated;
    Designed to use available traffic records systems effectively; 
    Conducted regularly.

    Evaluation results should be:

    Reported regularly to project and program managers; and
    Used to guide further program activities.

F. Funding

    States should allocate funding to impaired driving programs that 

    Adequate for program needs;
    Steady--from dedicated sources; and
    To the extent possible, paid by the impaired drivers themselves. 
The programs should work toward being self-sufficient.
* * * * *

Highway Safety Program Guideline

No. 10

Traffic Records

    Each State, in cooperation with its political subdivisions, should 
establish and implement a complete traffic records program. The 
Statewide program should include, or provide for, data for the entire 
State. A complete traffic records program is necessary for planning 
(problem identification), operational management or control, and 
evaluation of a State's highway safety activities. This type of program 
is basic to identifying highway safety problems, tracking safety 
trends, and implementing highway safety countermeasures. It is the key 
ingredient to safety effectiveness and management.

I. Traffic Records System

    To provide a complete and useful records system for safety program 
management at both the State and local level, the State should have a 
data base consisting of the following:

    An Accident File with data on the time, environment, and 
circumstances of a crash; identification of the vehicles, drivers, 
cyclists, occupants, and pedestrians involved; and documentation of 
crash consequences (fatalities, injuries, property damage and 
violations charged) with the data tied to a location reference 
    A Driver File or driver history record of licensed drivers in 
the State, with data on personal identification and driver license 
number, type of license, license status (suspended or revoked), 
driver restrictions, driver convictions for traffic violations, 
crash history, driver control or improvement actions, and safety 
education data;
    A Vehicle File with information on identification, ownership and 
taxation, and vehicle inspection (where applicable);
    A Roadway File with information about roadway location, 
identification, and classification as well as a description of a 
road's total physical characteristics, which is tied to a location 
reference system. This file should also contain data for normalizing 
purposes, such as miles of roadway and average daily traffic (ADT);
    A Commercial Motor Vehicle Crash File which uses uniform data 
definitions and collects information on the vehicle configuration, 
cargo body type, hazardous materials, information to identify the 
motor carrier, as well as information on the crash.
    A Citation/Conviction File which identifies the type of citation 
and the time, date, and location of the violation; the violator, 
vehicle and the enforcement agency; and adjudication action and 
results, including court of jurisdiction (an Enforcement/Citation 
File could be maintained separate from a Judicial/Conviction File) 
and fines assessed and collected;
    An Emergency Medical Services (EMS) file with emergency care and 
victim outcome information about ambulance responses to crashes, 
e.g., emergency care unit, care given, injury data, and times of EMS 
notification and arrival; information on emergency facility and 
hospital care, including Trauma Registry data; and medical outcome 
data relative to crash victims receiving rehabilitation and for 
those who died as the result of the crash, and
    Provisions for file linkage through common data elements between 
the files or through other consistent means; performance level data 
as part of the traffic records system; demographic data to normalize 
or adjust for exposure when analyzing the various data in the files; 
and provisions for the use of cost data relative to amounts spent on 
countermeasure programs and the costs of fatalities, injuries and 
property damage.

II. Data Characteristics

    Traffic records programs should meet basic requirements for the 
most effective use of the data by program managers. Accordingly, each 
State should emphasize the following characteristics:

    An accurate identification of the crash location;
    Timely and accurate data collection and input to all files, and 
especially to the Accident and Driver Files, to assure maximum 
utilization and confidence in the traffic records system. Each state 
is encouraged to join and fully participate in the driver license 
compact to ensure that complete data is available from other states;
    Data uniformity, providing for uniform coding and definition of 
data elements to allow a State to compare its crash problems to 
other States, regions and the nation; and the use of uniform coding 
of violations and convictions for the efficient exchange of driver 
information between States;
    Data consistency within a State over time to provide for multi-
year analysis of data to detect trends and for identification of 
emerging problems, as well as to determine beneficial effects of 
highway safety programs; and
    Timely and complete data output to ensure that highway safety 
program managers will have records that are accessible, 
understandable, and effective.

III. Use of Traffic Records

    The measure of a good records system is the degree to which it is 
used by those it was designed to serve. Each State should establish a 
process for the effective use of traffic records by highway safety 
management, including the following:

    A management process which addresses the role or use of traffic 
records data in planning (including problem identification), program 
control, and evaluation;
    A problem identification strategy that specifies the necessary 
data, assures that accurate and timely data are available, defines 
the analyses conducted (including the variables used, statistical 
tests applied, and trends examined), and describes how results are 
reported and used;
    Presentation of analysis results so that they are clearly 
understood and usable by managers, including the use of problem 
reports which describe the magnitude of the problems, and 
appropriate graphs, tables and charts to support the conclusions 
reached; and
    Provisions for program evaluation, beginning at the planning 
stage and carrying through implementation and final evaluation, 
essentially using the same types of data that were used in 
developing the programs implemented.

IV. Managing Traffic Records

    Each State should have an organizational structure in place for 
effective administration of its traffic records program, at a minimum 
consisting of the following components:

    A permanent Traffic Records Committee, representing the 
principal users and custodians of the data in the State, that 
provides administrative and technical guidance. The Committee should 
be responsible for adopting requirements for file structure and 
linkage, assessing capabilities and resources, establishing goals 
for improving the traffic records program, evaluating the program, 
continuously developing cooperation and support from State and local 
agencies as well as the private sector, and ensuring that high 
quality and timely data are available to authorized persons or 
agencies for appropriate use;
    A single state agency with responsibility for coordinating the 
traffic safety-related data aspects of the various State information 
systems. This would include ensuring that the necessary data were 
available for use in safety and analyses; and
    Professional staff with analytical expertise to perform data 
analysis for program planning and evaluation, including a basic 
understanding of data processing as it relates to the use of 
personal computers (PCs) and the ability to use PC software 
application packages to perform problem identification and program 
evaluation tasks.

Highway Safety Program Guideline

No. 11

Emergency Medical Services

    Each State, in cooperation with its political subdivisions, should 
ensure that persons incurring traffic injuries (or other trauma) 
receive prompt emergency medical care under the range of emergency 
conditions encountered. Each of the component parts of a system should 
be equally committed to its role in the system and ultimately to the 
care of the patient. At a minimum, the EMS program should be made up of 
the components detailed in this chapter.

I. Regulation and Policy

    Each State should embody comprehensive enabling legislation, 
regulations, and operational policies and procedures to provide an 
effective system of emergency medical and trauma care. This legal 
framework should:

    Establish the program and designate a lead agency;
    Outline the lead agency's basic responsibilities, including 
licensure and certification;
    Require comprehensive planning and coordination;
    Designate EMS and trauma system funding sources;
    Require data collection and evaluation; and
    Provide authority to establish minimum standards and identify 
penalties for noncompliance.

    Each of these components, which are discussed in different sections 
of this guideline, are critical to the effectiveness of legislation 
that is the legal foundation for a statewide EMS system.

II. Resource Management

    Each State should establish a central lead agency at the State 
level to identify, categorize, and coordinate resources necessary for 
overall system implementation and operation. The lead agency should:

    Maintain a coordinated response and ensure that resources are 
used appropriately throughout the State;
    Provide equal access to basic emergency care for all victims of 
medical or traumatic emergencies;
    Provide adequate triage and transport of all victims by 
appropriately certified personnel (at a minimum, trained to the 
emergency medical technician [EMT] basic level) in properly 
licensed, equipped, and maintained ambulances;
    Provide transport to a facility that is appropriately equipped, 
staffed, and ready to administer to the needs of the patient 
(section 4: Transportation); and,
    Appoint an advisory council to provide a forum for cooperative 
action and maximum use of resources.

III. Human Resources and Training

    Each State should ensure that its EMS system has essential trained 
human resources to perform required tasks. These personnel include: 
first responders (e.g., police and fire), prehospital providers (e.g., 
emergency medical technicians and paramedics), communications 
specialists, physicians, nurses, hospital administrators, and planners.
    Each State should provide a comprehensive statewide plan for stable 
and consistent EMS training programs with effective local and regional 
support. The State agency should:

    Ensure sufficient availability of adequately trained EMS 
    Establish EMT-Basic as the state minimum level of training for 
all transporting EMS personnel;
    Routinely monitor training programs to ensure uniformity and 
quality control;
    Use standardized curricula throughout the State;
    Ensure availability of continuing education programs;
    Require instructors to meet State requirements;
    Develop and enforce certification criteria for first responders 
and prehospital providers; and
    Require EMS operating organizations to collect data to evaluate 
emergency care in terms of frequency, category, and severity as well 
as the use of appropriate knowledge and skills.

IV. Transportation

    Each State should require safe, reliable ambulance transportation, 
which is critical to an effective EMS system. States should:

    Develop statewide transportation plans, including the 
identification of specific service areas;
    Implement regulations that provide for the systematic delivery 
of patients to appropriate facilities;
    Develop routine, standardized methods for inspection and 
licensing of all emergency medical transport vehicles;
    Establish a minimum number of providers at the desired level of 
certification on each response;
    Coordinate all emergency transports within the EMS system, 
including public, private, or specialty (air and ground) transport; 
    Develop regulations to ensure ambulance drivers are properly 
trained and licensed.

V. Facilities

    It is imperative that the seriously injured patient be delivered in 
a timely manner to the closest appropriate facility. Each State should 
ensure that:

    Both stabilization and definitive care needs of the patient are 
    The determination is free of political considerations and the 
capabilities of the facilities are clearly understood by prehospital 
    Hospital resources capabilities are known in advance, so that 
appropriate primary and secondary transport decisions can be made; 
    Agreements are made between facilities to ensure that patients 
receive treatment at the closest, most appropriate facility, 
including facilities in other states or counties.

VI. Communications

    An effective communications system is essential to EMS operations 
and provides the means by which emergency resources can be accessed, 
mobilized, managed, and coordinated. Each State should require a 
communication system to:

    Begin with a universal system access number, such as 911;
    Provide for prioritized dispatch (dispatch-to-ambulance, 
ambulance-to-ambulance, ambulance-to-hospital, and hospital-to-
hospital communication);
    Ensure the receiving facility is ready and able to accept the 
patient; and
    Provide for dispatcher training and certification standards.

    Each State should develop a statewide communications plan that 
defines State government roles in EMS system communications.

VII. Trauma Systems

    Each State should maintain a fully functional trauma system to 
provide a high quality, effective patient care system. States should 
implement legislation requiring the development of a trauma system, 

    Trauma center designation, using American College of Surgeons 
Committee on Trauma guidelines as a minimum;
    Triage and transfer standards for trauma patients;
    Data collection and trauma registry definitions for quality 
    Mandatory autopsies to determine preventable deaths; and
    Systems management and quality assurance.

VIII. Public Information and Education

    Public awareness and education about the EMS system are essential 
to a high quality system. Each State should implement a public 
information and education (PI&E) plan to address:

    The components and capabilities of an EMS system;
    The public's role in the system;
    The public's ability to access the system;
    What to do in an emergency (e.g., bystander care training);
    Education on prevention issues (e.g., alcohol or other drugs, 
occupant protection, speeding, motorcycle and bicycle safety); and
    The need for dedicated staff and resources for PI&E programming.

IX. Medical Direction

    Physician involvement in all aspects of the patient care system is 
critical for effective EMS operations. EMS is a medical care system in 
which physicians delegate responsibilities to non-physician providers 
who manage patient care outside the traditional confines of the office 
or hospital. States should require physicians to be involved in all 
aspects of the patient care system, including:

    Planning and protocols;
    On-line and off-line medical direction and consultation; and
    Audit and evaluation of patient care.

X. Evaluation

    Each State should implement a comprehensive evaluation program to 
effectively assess and improve a statewide EMS system. EMS system 
managers should:

    Evaluate the effectiveness of services provided to victims of 
medical or trauma-related emergencies;
    Define the impact of patient care on the system;
    Evaluate resource utilization, scope of service, patient 
outcome, and effectiveness of operational policies, procedures, and 
protocols; and
    Develop a data-gathering mechanism that provides for the linkage 
of data from different data sources through the use of common data 
* * * * *

Highway Safety Program Guideline

No. 14

Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety

    Each State, in cooperation with its political subdivisions, should 
have a comprehensive pedestrian and bicycle safety program that 
educates and motivates its citizens to follow safe pedestrian and 
bicycle practices. A combination of legislation, regulations, policy, 
enforcement, public information, education, incentives, and engineering 
is necessary to achieve significant, lasting improvements in pedestrian 
and bicycle crash rates.
    Each State should recognize that its pedestrians and bicyclists--
citizens of all ages who are virtually unprotected from the forces of a 
crash, face major safety problems and are a valid traffic safety 
concern. Because of the diverse nature of these issues, education, 
enforcement, and engineering are critical components to any strategies 
devised to reduce these problems. In formulating policy, the State 
should promote these specific issues:

    The provision of early pedestrian and bicycle safety education 
and training for preschool children;
    The inclusion of pedestrian and bicyclist safety in health and 
safety education curricula;
    The inclusion of pedestrian and bicyclist safety in driver 
training programs and driver licensing activities;
    The provision of a safe environment for pedestrians and 
bicyclists through such measures as sidewalks and bicycle 
facilities, in the planning and design of all highway projects;
    The use of bicycle helmets as a primary measure to reduce death 
and injury among bicyclists;
    An awareness of the role of alcohol in adult pedestrian 
    The safeguarding of older citizens from pedestrian accidents; 
    The establishment and support of Community/Corridor Traffic 
Safety Programs at the local level.

    A comprehensive highway safety system is the most effective means 
of producing consistent, long-term changes in knowledge and behavior 
necessary to improve pedestrian and bicycle safety. The following 
components create a structure for identifying problem areas; 
implementing, measuring, and evaluating the problem areas; and 
directing the results back into system improvements. We believe these 
elements will effectively address the problem.

I. Program Management

    Each State should have centralized program planning, initiation, 
and coordination to promote pedestrian and bicycle safety program 
issues as part of a comprehensive highway safety program. Evaluation is 
also important for determining progress and ultimate success of 
pedestrian and bicycle safety programs and for providing those results 
to revise existing programs and to develop new programs. The State 
should have program staff trained in pedestrian and bicyclist safety so 
that this program can:

    Conduct regular problem identification activities to identify 
fatality and injury crash trends for pedestrians and bicyclists and 
to provide guidance in development of countermeasures,
    Provide leadership, training, and technical assistance to other 
State agencies and local pedestrian and bicycle safety programs and 
    Convene a pedestrian and bicycle safety advisory task force or 
coalition to organize, integrate with other involved groups, and 
generate broad-based support for programs;
    Integrate pedestrian and bicycle safety programs into Community/
Corridor Traffic Safety Programs, injury prevention programs, and 
transportation plans; and
    Evaluate the effectiveness of its pedestrian and bicycle safety 

II. Multi-Disciplinary Involvement

    Pedestrian and bicyclist safety goes beyond the confines of any 
single State or local agency (enforcement or education) and requires 
the combined support and coordinated attention of multiple agencies, 
representing a variety of disciplines, at the State and local level. At 
a minimum, the following kinds of agencies should be involved:

    Law Enforcement
    Public Health
    Driver Education and Licensing
    Transportation--Engineering, Planning
    Public Communications

III. Legislation and Regulations

    Each State should enact and enforce pedestrian and bicyclist-
related traffic laws and regulations. Specific policies should be 
developed to encourage coordination with the Federal Highway 
Administration (FHWA) and other agencies, in the development of 
regulations and laws to promote pedestrian and bicyclist safety.

IV. Law Enforcement

    Each State should ensure that State and community pedestrian and 
bicycle programs include a law enforcement component. Each State should 
strongly emphasize the role played by law enforcement personnel in 
pedestrian and bicyclist safety. Essential components of that role 

    Developing knowledge of pedestrian and bicyclist crash 
situations; investigating crashes; and maintaining a report system 
that supports problem identification and evaluation activities;
    Providing public information and education support;
    Providing training to law enforcement personnel in matters of 
pedestrian and bicycle safety;
    Establishing agency policies; and
    Coordinating with the supporting education and engineering 

V. Traffic Engineering

    Traffic engineering is a critical element of any crash reduction 
program. This is true not only for the development of programs to 
reduce an existing crash problem, but also to design transportation 
facilities that provide for the safe movement of pedestrians, 
bicyclists, and all motor vehicles. Balancing the needs of pedestrians 
and those of vehicular traffic (including bicycle) must always be 
considered. Therefore, each State should ensure that State and 
community pedestrian and bicycle programs include a traffic engineering 
component. Traffic engineering efforts should be coordinated with 
enforcement and educational efforts. This effort should improve the 
protection of pedestrians and bicyclists by application of appropriate 
traffic engineering measures in design, construction, operation, and 
maintenance. These measures should include but not be limited to the 

    Pedestrians signals, signs, and markings
    Parking regulations
    Sidewalk design
    Pedestrian pathways
    Bicycle routes and pathways

VI. Public Information and Education

    Each State should ensure that State and community pedestrian and 
bicycle programs contain a public information and education component. 
This component should address school-based education programs, 
coordination with traffic engineering and law enforcement components, 
public information and awareness campaigns, and other targeted 
educational programs such as those for the elderly. These programs 
should address issues such as:

    Being visible in the traffic system (conspicuity)
    Use of facilities and accommodations
    Law enforcement initiatives
    Proper street crossing behavior
    The nature and extent of the problem
    Driver training with regard to pedestrian and bicycle safety
    Rules of the road
    Proper selection and use of bicyclist helmets
    Skills training for bicyclists
    Proper use of bicycle equipment
    Sharing the road

    The State should enlist the support of a variety of media, 
including mass media, to improve public awareness of pedestrian and 
bicyclist crash problems and programs directed at preventing them.

VII. Outreach Program

    Each State should encourage extensive community involvement in 
pedestrian and bicycle safety education by involving individuals and 
organizations outside the traditional highway safety community. 
Community involvement broadens public support for the State's programs 
and can increase a State's ability to deliver highway safety education 
programs. To encourage community involvement, States should:

    Establish a coalition or task force of individuals and 
organizations to actively promote safe pedestrian and bicycle safety 
practices (see Program Management Component);
    Create an effective communications network among coalition 
members to keep members informed; and
    Provide materials and resources necessary to promote pedestrian 
and bicycle safety education programs.

VIII. School-Based Program

    Each State should incorporate pedestrian and bicycle safety 
education into school curricula. Safe walking and bicycle-riding 
practices to and from school and school-related events are good health 
habits and, like other health habits, must be taught at an early age 
and reinforced until the habit is well established. The State 
Department of Education and the State Highway Safety Agency should:

    Ensure that highway safety in general, and pedestrian and 
bicycle safety in particular, are included in the State-approved K-
12 health and safety education curricula and textbooks;
    Establish and enforce written policies requiring safe walking 
and bicycling practices to and from school, including use of bicycle 
helmets on school property; and
    Encourage active promotion of safe walking and bicycling 
practices (including helmet usage) through classroom and extra-
curricular activities.

IX. Driver Education and Licensing

    Each State should address pedestrian and bicycle issues in State 
driver education and licensing programs. Pedestrian and bicycle safety 
principles and rules should be included in all driver training and 
licensing examinations.

X. Evaluation Program

    Both evaluation and problem identification require good record 
keeping by the State and its political subdivisions. The State should 
identify the types and frequency of pedestrian and bicyclist crash 
problems in terms that are relevant to both the selection and 
evaluation of appropriate countermeasure programs.
    The State should promote effective evaluation of programs by:

    Supporting the continuing analysis of police accident reports 
(PARs) of pedestrian and bicyclist crashes for both problem 
identification and program evaluation activities;
    Encouraging, supporting, and training localities in impact and 
process evaluations of local programs;
    Conducting and publicizing statewide surveys of public knowledge 
and attitudes about pedestrian and bicyclist safety;
    Maintaining awareness of trends in pedestrian and bicyclist 
crashes at the national level and how this might influence 
activities statewide;
    Evaluating the use of program resources and the effectiveness of 
existing general public and target population countermeasure 
    Ensuring that evaluation results are an integral part of new 
program planning and problem identification.

Highway Safety Program Guideline

No. 15

Police Traffic Services

    Each State, in cooperation with its political subdivisions, should 
have an efficient and effective police traffic services (PTS) program 
to enforce traffic laws, prevent crashes, assist the injured, document 
specific details of individual crashes, supervise crash clean-up, and 
restore safe and orderly movement of traffic. PTS is critical to the 
success of most traffic safety countermeasures. Traffic law enforcement 
plays an important role in deterring drunk and drugged driving, 
achieving safety belt use, encouraging compliance with speed laws, and 
reducing other unsafe driving actions. Experience has shown that a 
combination of highly visible enforcement, public information, 
education, and training is necessary to achieve a significant and 
lasting impact in reducing crashes, injuries, and fatalities. At a 
minimum, a well-balanced statewide PTS program should be made up of the 
components detailed below.

I. Program Management

A. Planning and Coordination

    Centralized program planning, implementation, and coordination are 
essential for achieving and sustaining effective PTS programs. The 
State Highway Safety Agency (SHSA), in conjunction with State and local 
law enforcement agencies, should ensure that these planning and 
coordinating functions are performed with regard to the State's traffic 
safety program, since law enforcement is in most instances a principle 
component of that program. In carrying out its responsibility of 
centralized program planning and coordination, the State should:

    Provide leadership, training, and technical assistance to State 
and local law enforcement agencies;
    Coordinate PTS and other traffic safety program areas including 
Commercial Motor Vehicle (CMV) safety activities such as the Motor 
Carrier Safety Assistance Program;
    Develop and implement a comprehensive plan for all PTS 
activities, in cooperation with law enforcement leaders;
    Generate broad-based support for enforcement programs; and
    Integrate PTS into Community/Corridor Traffic Safety Programs.

B. Program Elements

    State and local law enforcement agencies, in conjunction with the 
SHSA, should establish PTS as a priority within their total enforcement 
program. A PTS program should be built on a foundation of commitment, 
coordination, planning, monitoring, and evaluation within the agency's 
enforcement program. State and local law enforcement agencies should:

    Provide the public with a high quality, effective PTS system and 
have enabling legislation and regulations in place to implement PTS 
    Develop and implement a comprehensive enforcement plan for 
alcohol and drug impaired driving, safety belt use and child 
passenger safety laws, speeding, and other hazardous moving 
violations. The plan should initiate action to look beyond the 
issuance of traffic tickets to include enforcement of laws by 
drivers of all types of vehicles, including trucks, automobiles, and 
    Develop a cooperative working relationship with other local, 
county, and State governmental agencies and community organizations 
on traffic safety issues;
    Issue and enforce policies on roadside sobriety checkpoints, 
safety belt use, pursuit driving, crash investigating and reporting, 
speed enforcement, and serious traffic violations; and
    Develop performance measures for PTS that are both qualitative 
and quantitative.

II. Resource Management

    States should encourage law enforcement agencies to develop and 
maintain a comprehensive resource management plan to identify and 
deploy resources needed to effectively support enforcement programs. 
The resource management plan should include a specific component on 
traffic enforcement and safety, integrating traffic enforcement and 
safety initiatives into a total agency enforcement program. Law 
enforcement agencies should:

    Conduct periodic assessments of service demands and resources to 
meet identified needs;
    Develop a comprehensive resource management plan, including a 
specific traffic enforcement and safety component;
    Define the plan in terms of budget requirements and services to 
be provided; and
    Develop and implement operational policies for the deployment of 
resources to address program demands and to meet agency goals.

III. Traffic Law Enforcement

    The enforcement of traffic laws and ordinances is a basic 
responsibility shared by all police agencies. The primary objective of 
this function is to encourage motorists and pedestrians to comply 
voluntarily with the laws. Administrators should apply their 
enforcement resources in ways that ensure the greatest safety impact. 
Traffic law enforcement programs should be based on:

    Accurate problem identification;
    Countermeasures designed to address specific problems;
    Enforcement actions applied at appropriate times and places, 
coupled with a public information effort designed to make the 
motoring public aware of the problem and the planned enforcement 
action; and
    A system to document and publicize results.

IV. Public Information and Education

A. Necessity of Public Information and Education

    Public awareness and knowledge about traffic enforcement are 
essential for sustaining increased compliance with all traffic laws. 
This requires a well-organized, effectively-managed public information 
and education program. The SHSA, in cooperation with law enforcement 
agencies, should develop a statewide public information and education 
campaign that:

    Identifies and targets specific audiences;
    Addresses enforcement of safety belt use and child passenger 
safety, drunk and drugged driving, speed, and other serious traffic 
    Capitalizes on special events, such as Operation C.A.R.E., Child 
Passenger Safety Awareness, Buckle Up, America! and Drunk and 
Drugged Driving Awareness weeks;
    Identifies and supports the efforts of traffic safety activist 
groups to gain increased support of and attention to traffic safety 
and enforcement;
    Uses national themes, events, and materials; and
    Motivates the public to support increased enforcement of traffic 

    The task of public information can be divided into two 
interconnected areas: external and internal information. Both areas, 
properly administered, will benefit the agency and work in concert to 
accomplish the goal of establishing and maintaining a positive police-
public relationship.

B. Development of Public Information and Education Functions by Law 
Enforcement Agencies

    Educate and remind the public about traffic laws and safe 
driving behavior;
    Disseminate information to the public about agency activities 
and accomplishments;
    Enhance relationships with news media;
    Provide safety education and community services;
    Provide legislative and judicial information and support; and
    Increase the public's understanding of the enforcement agency's 
role in traffic safety:
    Disseminate information about internal activities to sworn and 
civilian members of the agency;
    Enhance the agency's safety enforcement role and increase 
employee understanding and support; and
    Recognize employee achievements.

V. Data Collection and Analysis

    The availability of valid data is critical to any approach intended 
to increase the level of highway safety. An effective records program 
provides fast and accurate information to field personnel who are 
performing primary traffic functions and to management for decision-
making. Data are usually collected from crash reports, daily officer 
activity reports that contain workload and citation information, 
highway department records (e.g., traffic volume), citizen complaints, 
and officer observations. An effective records program should:

    Provide information rapidly and accurately;
    Provide routine compilations of data for management use in the 
decision making process;
    Provide data for operational planning and execution;
    Interface with a variety of data systems, including statewide 
traffic safety records system; and
    Be accessible to enforcement, planners, and management.

VI. Training

    Training is one of the most important activities in a law 
enforcement agency, and it is essential to support the special 
requirements of traffic law enforcement and safety. It is essential for 
operational personnel to be prepared to effectively perform their 
duties. Traffic enforcement training can be conducted by the agency, 
the State Police Officer Standards and Training (POST) agency, or a 
commercial trainer.

A. Purpose and Goals of Training

    Training accomplishes a wide variety of important and necessary 
goals. Proper training should:

    Prepare officers to act decisively and correctly;
    Increase compliance with agency enforcement goals;
    Assist in meeting priorities;
    Improve compliance with established policies;
    Result in greater productivity and effectiveness;
    Foster cooperation and unity of purpose;
    Help offset liability actions; and
    Motivate and enhance officer professionalism.

B. State and Local Law Enforcement Agencies Should

    Periodically assess enforcement activities to determine training 
    Require traffic enforcement knowledge and skills in all 
    Provide traffic enforcement in-service training to experienced 
    Provide specialized CMV in-service training to traffic 
enforcement officers;
    Conduct training to implement specialized traffic enforcement 
skills, techniques, or programs; and
    Train instructors, to increase agency capabilities and to ensure 
continuity of specialized enforcement skills and techniques.

VII. Evaluation

    The SHSA, in conjunction with State and local law enforcement 
agencies, should develop a comprehensive evaluation program to measure 
progress toward established project goals and objectives; effectively 
plan and implement statewide and local PTS programs; optimize the 
allocation of limited resources; measure the impact of traffic 
enforcement on reducing crime and traffic crashes, injuries, and 
deaths; and compare costs of criminal activity to costs of traffic 
crashes. Law enforcement managers should:

    Include evaluation in initial program planning efforts to ensure 
that data will be available and that sufficient resources will be 
    Report results regularly to project and program managers, to 
police field commanders and officers, and to the public and private 
    Use results to guide future activities and to assist in 
justifying resources to legislative bodies;
    Conduct a variety of surveys to assist in determining program 
effectiveness, such as roadside sobriety surveys, speed surveys, 
license checks, belt use surveys, and surveys measuring public 
knowledge and attitudes about traffic enforcement programs;
    Evaluate the effectiveness of services provided in support of 
priority traffic safety areas; and
    Maintain and report traffic data to the International 
Association of Chiefs of Police Traffic Data Report and other 
appropriate repositories, such as the FBI Uniform Crime Report, 
FHWA's SAFETYNET system, and annual statewide reports.
* * * * *

Highway Safety Program Guideline

No. 19

Speed Control

    Each State, in cooperation with its political subdivisions, should 
have, as part of a comprehensive highway safety program, an effective 
speed control program that encourages its citizens to voluntarily 
comply with speed limits. The program should stress systematic and 
rational establishment of speed limits, a law enforcement commitment to 
controlling speed on all public roads, a commitment to utilize both 
traditional methods and state-of-the art equipment in setting and 
enforcing speed limits, and a strong public information and education 
program aimed at increasing driver compliance with speed limits.

I. Program Management

    State and local law enforcement agencies, transportation 
departments, and the State Highway Safety Agency (SHSA) should 
establish speed control as a priority within their total highway safety 
program. The speed control program should contain the following 
elements: program management, procedures for establishing reasonable 
speed limits, coordinated enforcement efforts, public information and 
education, identification and utilization of new technology, 
legislative coordination and commitment, training, and evaluation. When 
planning and developing a program to address speed control, the issue 
of speed should be examined in light of the empirical data available, 
current methods for setting speed limits, and the current public 
perception of speed compliance. Added to these elements is the law 
enforcement response, including the resources available to enforcement 
agencies. Only after these components have been examined and defined 
can the goals of a speed control program be formulated. In carrying out 
its responsibility of centralized program planning and coordination, 
the State should:

    Develop and implement a comprehensive speed control plan in 
cooperation with law enforcement leaders, traffic engineers, 
educators, and leaders of the community;
    Provide leadership, training, and technical assistance to State 
and local law enforcement agencies and highway/traffic agencies;
    Generate broad based support for speed control programs through 
education on the scope and severity of the problem; and
    Integrate speed control into the overall traffic enforcement and 
engineering program.

II. Enforcement Program

    Each State should strongly emphasize speed enforcement as part of 
its overall traffic enforcement program. The speed enforcement program 
should include enforcement strategies and other components of a 
comprehensive approach to address the speed issue. The plan should 
address the following concepts:

    Including public information and education components along with 
vigorous enforcement in State and local anti-speeding programs;
    Collecting data to help in problem identification and 
    Identifying high risk crash locations where speed is a 
contributing factor in crashes;
    Integrating speed control programs into related highway safety 
activities such as drunk driving prevention, safety belt and safety 
programs for young people;
    Targeting anti-speeding programs to address specific audiences 
and situations: young drivers, males, nighttime, adverse weather and 
traffic conditions, drunk driving, CMV drivers, school zones, 
construction and maintenance work zones, roads and streets with 
major potential conflicts in traffic and with pedestrians, and so 
    Using speed measuring devices that are both efficient and cost 
effective, including new speed measurement technology such as laser 
speed measuring devices, electronic signing and photo-radar; and
    Training officers in the proper use of equipment and educating 
other members of the criminal justice system, such as judges and 
prosecutors, on the principles of devices using new technology.

III. Setting of Speed Limits

    States and local governments should undertake comprehensive efforts 
to identify rational criteria for establishing speed limits and should 
include strategies to address the speed issue. These efforts should 

    Identification of criteria used to establish speed limits 
including the recognition of unique operational characteristics of 
    Use of state-of-the art technology to collect data to establish 
speed limits;
    Use of variable message speed limit signs to reinforce the 
appropriate speed limit for prevailing conditions;
    Identification of high hazard locations where speeding is a 
contributing factor;
    A coordinated effort with enforcement agencies, educators, and 
community leaders to provide information on setting of speed limits; 
    Training traffic and enforcement personnel in the proper 
techniques for establishing safe and reasonable speed limits and in 
the use and deployment of speed monitoring equipment.

IV. Public Information and Education

    Focused public information and education campaigns are an essential 
part of a comprehensive speed control program. Research shows that 
compliance with and support for traffic laws can be increased through 
aggressive, targeted enforcement combined with an effective public 
information and education campaign. The SHSA, in cooperation with law 
enforcement and transportation agencies, should develop a Statewide 
public information and education campaign that:

    Identifies and targets specific audiences;
    Addresses criteria for setting speed limits and enforcement of 
speed limits particularly for locations experiencing excessive speed 
or speed related crashes;
    Capitalizes on special events (cooperative, multi-jurisdictional 
enforcement efforts) such as Operation Co-Flame and Span I-70 and 
other special holiday enforcement programs;
    Identifies and supports the efforts of traffic safety activist 
groups to gain increased support of and attention to traffic safety 
and speed control;
    Use national themes, events, and materials; and
    Motivates the public to support speed control by pointing out 
the public health issues of injury, death, and economic costs of 
speed related crashes.

V. Technology

    New and updated technology for speed measurement is needed to 
determine appropriated speed limits for a variety of conditions and to 
provide maximum enforcement activity with fewer available resources. 
Current technology for measuring speed, such as loop detectors, should 
be used not only to establish viable speed limits but also to vary 
speed limits to conform to existing conditions. State and local 
governments should only utilize speed measurement equipment for 
enforcement that is approved or recognized as reliable and accurate. 
All law enforcement agencies should use the International Association 
of Chiefs of Police (IACP) regional testing laboratories to ensure that 
equipment used to measure speeds meets minimum standards. For CMV 
enforcement purposes, the FHWA will provide MCSAP funding only for 
those items of speed control equipment approved by the ICAP or which 
meet other suitable standards. The SHSA, in conjunction with law 
enforcement and traffic/highway agencies, should support programs 
providing for:

    Collection of operational speed data to determine appropriate 
speed limits and for use of these data in conjunction with variable 
message signs;
    Police Radar Model Minimum Specifications--NHTSA, in cooperation 
with the IACP and the National Institute of Standards and Technology 
(NIST), has developed model specifications and testing protocols for 
police traffic radar. Using these model specification, IACP in 
cooperation with radar manufacturers and NHTSA, has established a 
program to test radar sets that are available for purchase by law 
enforcement agencies. Reports of the testing were published by IACP 
along with a Consumer Products List which provides law enforcement 
agencies with the names of radar sets conforming with the model 
performance specifications.
    Police Radar Testing Program--To ensure that law enforcement 
agencies can continue to purchase and operate accurate radar 
devices, IACP, in cooperation with radar manufacturers and NHTSA, 
has established an ongoing process of performance testing for newly 
developed devices and for maintaining existing equipment. Testing 
laboratories have been established at five universities. These 
laboratories will continue the testing program and will provide 
services to the law enforcement community.
    Model Performance Specifications and Test Protocols--NIST, Law 
Enforcement Standards Laboratory, is developing model minimum 
performance and testing protocols for automated speed enforcement 
(ASE) devices, including photo-radar devices and laser speed 
measurement devices;
    Basic Training Program in VASCAR Speed Measurement--NHTSA has 
developed a training course for the VASCAR (Visual Average Speed 
Computer and Recorder) time-distance speed measurement devices. This 
course was developed specifically for use by law enforcement 
officers; and
    Basic Training Program in Radar Speed Measurement--NHTSA has 
developed a basic training course which teaches the correct 
procedures for law enforcement's use of police radar and also the 
proper instructional techniques for those teaching the course;

VI. Legislation

    To encourage voluntary compliance by drivers, speed limits must be 
safe, reasonable, and uniform to the greatest extent possible. 
Realistic speed limits on roadways (other than those governed by the 
National Maximum Speed Limit) should:

    Be based upon traffic and engineering investigations;
    Encourage drivers to comply with the posted limits and allow 
enforcement agencies to better target speeders;
    Be accompanied by sanctions, including court and administrative 
penalties, which are set by law;
    Be as consistent as possible with the physical and operational 
characteristics (actual and perceived) of the roadway; and
    Take into account the needs and safety of all highway users, 
motorists and non-motorists alike.

    Legislative components of an effective speed control program 

    Encourage the highway safety community to develop laws, rules, 
and regulations that will provide for reasonable and safe speed 
    Provide appropriate legislation to allow the establishment of 
regulatory variable speed limits, such as the provisions of Chapter 
11, Article VIII of the Uniform Vehicle Code;
    Provide for public information and education programs to explain 
how speed limits are established and to convince drivers that speed 
limits are realistic, reasonable, and include sanctions; and
    Establish sanctions for speeding violations that are reasonable, 
uniform, and effective as a deterrent.

    New devices and technology are available for use in determining 
appropriate speed limits and in law enforcement actions to measure the 
speed of vehicles. Transportation and law enforcement agencies should 
work closely with the SHSA to make certain new technologies can be used 
under existing legislation. As necessary, these groups should work 
together in ensuring development and adoption of legislation allowing 
use of new technologies.

VII. Training

    NHTSA fully supports and encourages training for law enforcement 
officers in the use of speed measurement devices, model speed 
enforcement strategies, combined enforcement projects, and planning and 
implementing public information and education programs.
    In support of law enforcement training NHTSA will continue to 
publish and widely distribute training programs. These courses are 
related to established as well as new and emerging techniques of speed 
measurement and enforcement. The training courses are recommended for 
officers in law enforcement agencies using speed measuring devices. 
FHWA also provides training programs on CMV traffic enforcement.
    Training for law enforcement officers involved in speed enforcement 
should include:

    Proper use of devices used to measure speed;
    How to use data and analysis to define the speed problem, to 
target enforcement activities, and to evaluate the results of 
    How to relate speed enforcement to public safety;
    How to plan and implement a PI&E program on speed enforcement;
    Model speed enforcement strategies including examples of 
combined enforcement programs; and
    Escorting and assisting traffic engineers and technicians in 
deployment and use of speed measuring equipment.

    Training for traffic engineers and technicians should include:

    Proper use and development of speed measurement equipment; and
    Interpreting geometric, operational and environmental data for 
their impact on roadway safety and user performance.

VIII. Evaluation

    The SHSA, in conjunction with State and local law enforcement and 
transportation agencies should develop a comprehensive evaluation 
program to measure progress toward established project goals and 
objectives. The evaluation should measure the impact of speed control 
programs on traffic crashes, injuries, and deaths; and provide 
information for revised improved program planning. These agencies 

    Include evaluation in initial program planning efforts to ensure 
that data will be available and that sufficient resources will be 
    Report results regularly to project and program managers, to 
police field commanders and officers, to transportation engineers, 
and to the public and private sectors.
    Use results to verify problem identification, guide future speed 
control activities, and assist in justifying resources to 
legislative bodies;
    Conduct a variety of surveys to assist in determining program 
effectiveness, such as speed surveys and surveys measuring public 
knowledge and attitude about speed control programs;
    Analyze speed compliance and speed-related crashes in areas with 
actual hazards to the public;
    Evaluate the effectiveness of speed control activities provided 
in support of other priority traffic safety areas; and
    Maintain and report traffic data to the SHSA, IACP Traffic Data 
Report and other appropriate repositories, such as the FBI Uniform 
Crime Reports, FHWA's SAFETYNET system, and annual statewide 

Highway Safety Program Guideline

No. 20

Occupant Protection

    Each State, in cooperation with its political subdivisions, should 
have a comprehensive occupant protection program that educates and 
motivates its citizens to use available motor vehicle occupant 
protection systems. A combination of use requirements, enforcement, 
public information, education, and incentives is necessary to achieve 
significant, lasting increases in safety belt usage. Therefore, a well-
balanced State occupant protection program should include the 
components described below.

I. Program Management

    Each State should have centralized program planning, implementation 
and coordination to achieve and sustain high rates of safety belt use. 
Evaluation is also important for determining progress and ultimate 
success of occupant protection programs. The State Highway Safety 
Agency (SHSA) should:

    Provide leadership, training, and technical assistance to other 
state agencies and local occupant protection programs and projects;
    Convene an occupant protection advisory task force or coalition 
to organize and generate broad-based support for programs;
    Integrate occupant protection programs into community/corridor 
traffic safety programs; and
    Evaluate the effectiveness of its occupant protection program.

II. Legislation, Regulation, and Policy

    Each State should enact and enforce safety belt use laws, 
regulations, and policies to provide clear guidance to the motoring 
public concerning motor vehicle occupant protection systems. This legal 
framework should include:

    Legislation requiring all motor vehicle occupants to use the 
systems provided by the vehicle manufacturer and establish 
educational programs to explain their benefits and the correct way 
to use them;
    Legislation requiring children up to 40 pounds (or five years 
old if weight cannot be determined) to ride in a safety device 
certified by the manufacturer to meet all applicable Federal 
performance standards;
    Regulations requiring employees of all levels of government to 
wear safety belts when traveling on official business;
    Official policy requiring that organizations receiving Federal 
highway safety program grant funds have and enforce an employee 
safety belt use policy; and
    Encouragement for automobile insurers to offer economic 
incentives for policy holders to wear safety belts, to secure small 
children in child safety seats, and to purchase cars equipped with 
air bags.

III. Enforcement Program

    Each State should have a strong law enforcement program, coupled 
with public information and education, to increase safety belt and 
child safety seat use. Essential components of a law enforcement 
program include:

    Written, enforced belt use policies for law enforcement agencies 
with sanctions for noncompliance to protect law enforcement officers 
from harm and for officers to serve as role models for the motoring 
    Vigorous enforcement of public safety belt use and child safety 
seat laws, including citations and warnings;
    Accurate reporting of occupant protection system information on 
accident report forms, including use or non-use of belts, type of 
belt, and presence of and deployment of air bag;
    Public information and education (PI&E) campaigns to inform the 
public about occupant protection laws and related enforcement 
    Routine monitoring of citation rates for non-use of safety belts 
and child safety seats; and
    Certification of an occupant protection training course for both 
basic and in-service training by the Police Officer Standards and 
Training (POST) board.

IV. Public Information and Education Program

    As part of each State's public information and education program, 
the State should enlist the support of a variety of media, including 
mass media, to improve public awareness and knowledge about safety 
belts, air bags, and child safety seats. To sustain or increase rates 
of safety belt and child safety seat use, a well-organized, effectively 
managed public information program should:

    Identify and target specific audiences, (e.g., low-use, high 
risk motorists) and develop messages appropriate for these 
    Address the enforcement of the State's belt use and child 
passenger safety laws; the safety benefits of regular, correct 
safety belt (both manual and automatic) and child safety seat use; 
and the additional protection provided by air bags;
    Capitalize on special events, such as nationally recognized 
safety weeks and local enforcement campaigns;
    Coordinate different materials and media campaigns where 
practicable, (e.g., by using a common theme and logo);
    Use national themes and materials to the fullest extent 
    Publicize belt-use surveys and other relevant statistics;
    Encourage news media to report belt use and non-use in motor 
vehicle crashes;
    Involve media representatives in planning and disseminating 
public information campaigns;
    Encourage private sector groups to incorporate belt-use messages 
into their media campaigns;
    Take advantage of all media outlets: television, radio, print, 
signs, billboards, theaters, sports events, health fairs; and
    Evaluate all media campaign efforts.

V. Health/Medical Program

    Each State should integrate occupant protection into health 
programs. The failure of drivers and passengers to use occupant 
protection systems is a major health problem that must be recognized by 
the health care community. The SHSA and the State Health Department 
should collaborate in developing programs that:

    Integrate occupant protection into professional health training 
curricula and comprehensive public health planning;
    Promote occupant protection systems as a health promotion/
disease prevention measure;
    Require public health and medical personnel to use available 
motor vehicle occupant protection systems when on the job;
    Provide technical assistance and education about the importance 
of motor vehicle occupant protection to primary caregivers, (e.g., 
doctors, nurses, clinic staff);
    Include questions about safety belt use in health risk 
    Utilize health care providers as visible public spokespersons 
for belt use and child safety seat use;
    Provide information about availability of child safety seats 
through maternity hospitals and other pre-natal and natal care 
centers (see Program Component VI: Child Passenger Safety Program); 
    Collect, analyze, and publicize data on additional injuries and 
medical expenses resulting from non-use of occupant protection 

VI. Child Passenger Safety Program

    Each State should vigorously promote the use of child safety seats. 
States should require every child up to 40 pounds to ride correctly 
secured in a child safety seat that meets Federal Motor Vehicle Safety 
Standards (see Program Component II: Legislation, Regulation, and 
Policy). State and community child passenger safety programs that will 
help to achieve that objective should be established to:

    Educate parents, pediatricians, hospitals, law enforcement, EMS 
and the general public about the safety risks to small children, the 
benefits of child safety seats, and their responsibilities for 
compliance with child passenger safety laws;
    Encourage child safety seat retailers and auto dealers to 
provide information about child seat and vehicle compatibility, as 
well as correct use;
    Require safe child transportation policies for certification of 
pre-school and day care providers;
    Require hospitals to ensure that newborn and other small 
children are correctly secured in an approved child safety seat or 
safety belt upon discharge;
    Make child safety seats available at affordable cost to low-
income families; and
    Encourage local law enforcement to vigorously enforce child 
passenger safety laws, including safety belt use laws as they apply 
to children.

VII. School-Based Program

    Each State should incorporate occupant protection education in 
school curricula. Buckling up is a good health habit and, like other 
health habits, must be taught at an early age and reinforced until the 
habit is well established. The State Department of Education and the 
State Highway Safety Agency should:

    Ensure that highway safety in general, and occupant protection 
in particular, are included in the State-approved K-12 health and 
safety education curricula and textbooks;
    Establish and enforce written policies requiring that school 
employees operating a motor vehicle on the job use safety belts; and
    Encourage active promotion of regular safety belt use through 
classroom and extra-curricular activities as well as in the school-
based health clinics.

VIII. Worksite Program

    Each State should encourage all employers to require safety belt 
use on the job as a condition of employment. The Federal government has 
already taken that step for its employees. Private sector employers 
should follow the lead of Federal and State government employers and 
comply with all applicable FHWA Federal Motor Carrier Safety 
Regulations or Occupational Health and Safety (OSHA) regulations 
requiring private business employees to use safety belts on the job. 
All employers should:

    Establish and enforce a safety belt use policy with sanctions; 
    Conduct occupant protection education programs for employees on 
their belt use policies and the safety benefits of motor vehicle 
occupant protection.

IX. Outreach Program

    Each State should encourage extensive community involvement in 
occupant protection education by involving individuals and 
organizations outside the traditional highway safety community. 
Community involvement broadens public support for the State's programs 
and can increase a State's ability to deliver highway safety education 
programs. To encourage community involvement, States should:

    Establish a coalition or task force of individuals and 
organizations to actively promote use of occupant protection 
    Create an effective communications network among coalition 
members to keep members informed; and
    Provide materials and resources necessary to conduct occupant 
protection education programs, especially directed toward young 
people, in local settings.

X. Evaluation Program

    Each State should conduct several different types of evaluation to 
effectively measure progress and to plan and implement new program 
strategies. Program management should:

    Conduct and publicize at least one statewide observational 
survey of safety belt and child safety seat use annually, making 
every effort to ensure that it meets applicable federal guidelines;
    Maintain trend data on child safety seat and belt use in fatal 
    Identify target populations through observational surveys and 
crash statistics;
    Conduct and publicize statewide surveys of public knowledge and 
attitudes about occupant protection laws and systems;
    Obtain monthly or quarterly data from law enforcement agencies 
on the number of safety belt and child passenger safety citations 
and convictions;
    Evaluate the use of program resources and the effectiveness of 
existing general public and target population education programs;
    Obtain data on morbidity as well as the estimated cost of 
crashes in regards to safety belt usage and non-usage; and
    Ensure that evaluation results are an integral part of new 
program planning and problem identification.

Highway Safety Program Guideline

No. 21

Roadway Safety

    Each State, in cooperation with its political subdivisions, should 
have a comprehensive roadway safety program that is directed toward 
reducing the number and severity of traffic crashes.

I. Program Management

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides administrative 
oversight for the Roadway Safety portion of the section 402 highway 
safety program in close coordination with the State Highway Safety 
Agency (SHSA) and the State Highway Agency (SHA). Although section 402 
dollars cannot be utilized for highway construction, maintenance or 
design activities, they can be used to develop and implement systems 
and procedures for carrying out safety construction and operational 
improvements. These funds can also be used to augment Federal-aid 
highway programs, such as the Hazard Elimination Program (Section 152) 
and the Rail-Highway Crossings Programs (Section 130), as well as other 
safety construction activities.
    An effective Roadway Safety program is based on sound analyses of 
roadway-related crash information and applies engineering principles in 
identifying highway design or operational improvements that will 
address the crash problem. The SHSA should:

    Assign program staff to work directly with the FHWA division 
safety engineer on roadway-related safety programs.
    Work in close harmony with the SHA, particularly with SHA staff 
who are responsible for traffic engineering, pedestrian and bicycle 
programs, CMV safety, rail-highway crossing safety issues, work zone 
safety, design and operational improvements, and hazardous roadway 
    Foster an ongoing dialogue among all disciplines with a vested 
interest in highway safety, including engineers, enforcement 
personnel, traffic safety specialists, driver licensing 
administrators, CMV safety specialists, and data specialists.
    Promote a multi-disciplinary approach to addressing highway 
safety issues which focuses on comprehensive solutions to identified 
problems. An example is assisting in the coordination and the 
implementation of Community/Corridor Traffic Safety Programs, and 
MCSAP, where appropriate.
    Become familiar with the various highway-safety related 
categories of Federal-aid highway funds--in addition to section 
402--in order to maximize the safety benefits of the entire program.
    Become familiar with the State's traffic records system and play 
a role in the system's ongoing operation, maintenance and 
    Assist community leaders in managing and/or coordinating 
programs designed to address roadway safety issues and concerns 
which fall under the jurisdiction of local communities.
    Become familiar with MCSAP and coordinate MCSAP and section 402 
program activities.

II. Related Highway Safety Program Guidelines

    Roadway Safety applies to highway safety activities related to the 
roadway environment and includes activities which are described in the 
following Highway Safety Program Guidelines:

    Guideline #9: Identification and Surveillance of Accident 
    Guideline #12: Highway design, Construction and maintenance,
    Guideline #13: Traffic Engineering Services,
    Guideline #14: Pedestrian Safety.

    A model Roadway Safety program would encompass the following 
aspects of these four guidelines:

    Procedures for accurate identification of crash locations on all 
roads and streets which identify crash experience on specific 
sections of the road and street system.
    Methods to produce an inventory of high crash locations 
experiencing sharp increases as well as design and operational 
features with which high crash frequencies or severities are 
    Appropriate measures to reduce crashes and evaluate the 
effectiveness of safety improvements on any specific section of the 
road or street system.
    A systematically organized method to ensure continuing 
surveillance of the roadway network for potentially high crash 
locations and the development of methods for their correction.
    Design guidelines relating to safety features such as sight 
distances, horizontal and vertical curvature, spacing of decision 
points, width of lanes, etc. for all new construction or 
reconstruction at least on expressways, major streets and highways, 
and through streets and highways.
    Street systems that are designated to provide a safe traffic 
environment for all roadway users when subdivisions and residential 
areas are developed or redeveloped.
    Efforts to ensure that roadway lighting is provided or upgraded 
on a priority basis at: expressways and other major arteries in 
urban areas, junctions of major highways in rural areas, locations 
or sections of streets and highways which have high ratios of night-
to-day motor vehicle and/or pedestrian crashes, and tunnels and long 
    Guidelines for pavement design and construction with specific 
provisions for high skid resistance qualities.
    A program for resurfacing or other surface treatment with 
emphasis on correction of locations or sections of streets and 
highways with low skid resistance and high or potentially high crash 
rates susceptible to reduction by providing improved surfaces.
    Efforts to ensure that there is guidance, warning and regulation 
of traffic approaching and traveling over construction or repair 
sites and detours.
    A method for systematic identification and tabulation of all 
rail-highway grade crossings and a program for the elimination of 
hazards and dangerous crossings.
    Projects which provide for the safe and efficient movement of 
traffic, by ensuring that roadways and the roadsides are maintained 
consistent with the design guidelines which are followed in 
    Identify and correct hazards within the highway right-of-way.
    Wherever possible for crash prevention and crash survivability, 
efforts to include at least the following highway design and 
construction features:
    Roadsides which are clear of obstacles, with clear distance 
determined on the basis of traffic volumes, prevailing speeds, and 
the nature of development along the street or highway;
    Supports for traffic control devices and lighting that are 
designed to yield or break away under impact wherever appropriate;
    Protective devices that afford maximum protection to the 
occupants of vehicles where fixed objects cannot be reasonably 
removed or designed to yield;
    Bridge railings and parapets which are designed to minimize 
severity of impact, to retain the vehicle, to redirect the vehicle 
so that it will move parallel to the roadway, and to minimize danger 
to traffic below;
    Guardrails, and other design features which protect people from 
out-of-control vehicles at locations of special hazard such as 
playgrounds, schoolyards and commercial areas.
    A post-crash program that includes at least the following:
    Signs at freeway interchanges directing motorists to hospitals 
which have emergency care capabilities;
    Maintenance personnel who are trained in procedures for 
summoning aid, protecting others from hazards at crash sites, and 
removing debris;
    Provisions for access and egress for emergency vehicles to 
freeway sections where this would significantly reduce travel time 
without reducing the safety benefits of access control.
    A comprehensive resource development plan to provide the 
necessary traffic engineering capability, including:
    Provisions for supplying traffic engineering assistance to those 
jurisdictions which are unable to justify a full-time traffic 
engineering staff;
    Provisions for upgrading the skills of practicing traffic 
engineers, and providing basic instruction in traffic engineering 
techniques to other professionals and technicians.
    The utilization of traffic engineering principles and expertise 
in the planning, design, construction, and maintenance of the public 
roadways, and in the application of traffic control devices.
    A traffic control device plan which includes:
    An inventory of all traffic control devices;
    Periodic review of existing traffic control devices, including a 
systematic upgrading of substandard devices to conform with 
standards endorsed by the Federal Highway Administrator;
    A maintenance schedule adequate to insure proper operation and 
timely repair of control devices, including daytime and nighttime 
    And where appropriate, the application and evaluation of new 
ideas and concepts in applying control devices and in the 
modification of existing devices to improve their effectiveness 
through controlled experimentation.
    An implementation schedule which utilizes traffic engineering 
resources to:
    Review road projects during the planning, design, and 
construction stages to detect and correct features that may lead to 
operational safety difficulties;
    Install safety-related improvements as part of routine 
maintenance and/or repair activities;
    Correct conditions noted during routine operational surveillance 
of the roadway system to rapidly adjust for the changes in traffic 
and road characteristics as a means of reducing the frequency and 
severity of crashes;
    Conduct traffic engineering analyses of all high crash locations 
and the development of corrective measures;
    Analyze potentially hazardous locations--such as sharp curves, 
steep grades, and railroad grade crossings--and develop appropriate 
    Identify traffic control needs and determine short and long 
range requirements.
    Evaluate the effectiveness of specific traffic control measures 
in reducing the frequency and severity of traffic crashes;
    Conduct traffic engineering studies to establish traffic 
regulations, such as fixed or variable speed limits.
    A method to ensure a continuing statewide inventory of 
pedestrian-motor vehicle crashes identifying the location and times 
of the crash, as well as the age of the pedestrian and circumstances 
of the incident.
    Statewide operational procedures for improving the protection of 
pedestrians through the application of traffic engineering 
practices, careful land-use planning in newly developed areas, 
physical separation of pedestrian pathways from vehicle roadways, 
and environmental illumination of high volume and/or potentially 
hazardous pedestrian crossings.
    Periodic evaluation of each of the Roadway Safety projects by 
the State, or appropriate Federal department or agency where 
applicable. The evaluation should provide information detailing the 
program's effectiveness in terms of crash reduction and the end 
results of crashes, and the Federal Highway Administration should be 
provided with an evaluation summary.

    Companion Highway Safety Program Manuals (February, 1974), which 
supplement Guidelines 9, 12, and 13 and provide additional information 
to assist State and local agencies in implementing their roadway safety 
programs are available from the Federal Highway Administration's Office 
of Highway Safety.

    Issued on: January 4, 1994.
Rodney E. Slater,
Administrator, Federal Highway Administration.
Howard M. Smolkin,
Executive Director, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
[FR Doc. 94-660 Filed 1-13-94; 8:45 am]

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