Wikipedia: Ford F-Series
The following section is an excerpt from Wikipedia's Ford F-Series page on 4 April 2017, text available via the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.
The Ford F-Series is a series of light-duty trucks and medium-duty trucks (Class 2-7) that have been marketed and manufactured by Ford Motor Company since 1948. While most variants of the F-Series trucks are full-size pickup trucks, the F-Series also includes chassis cab trucks and commercial vehicles. The Ford F-Series has been the best-selling vehicle in the United States since 1981 and the best-selling pickup since 1977. It is also the best selling vehicle in Canada.
In 1999, to bridge the gap between the pickup line and the medium-duty trucks, the F-250 and F-350 became the Ford Super Duty vehicles; considered an expansion of the F-Series, the Super Duty trucks are built on a distinct chassis with heavier-duty components. As of the 2017 model year, the F-Series includes the F-150, the Super Duty (F-250 through F-550), and F-650 and F-750 Super Duty medium-duty commercial trucks. The most popular version of the F-Series is the F-150, now in its thirteenth generation.
Through the use of rebadging, Ford has marketed the F-Series through all three Ford divisions in North America. From 1946 to 1968, Mercury sold the Mercury M-Series in Canada; during the 2000s, Lincoln sold the Lincoln Blackwood, replaced by the Lincoln Mark LT.
First generation (1948–1952)
The first-generation F-Series pickup (known as the Ford Bonus-Built) was introduced in 1948 as a replacement for the previous car-based pickup line introduced in 1942. The F-Series was sold in eight different weight ratings, with pickup, panel truck, cab-over engine (COE), conventional truck, and school bus chassis body styles.
Second generation (1953–1956)
For the 1953 model year, an all-new version of the F-Series made its debut. Increased dimensions, improved engines, and an updated chassis were features of the second generation. Additionally, a change to the F-Series naming scheme would remain in place to the present day. The half-ton F-1 became the F-100 (partially influenced by the North American F-100 Super Sabre); the F-2 and F-3 were combined into the F-250 while the F-4 became the F-350. Conventional F-Series trucks were F-500 to F-900; COE chassis were C-Series trucks.
Third generation (1957–1960)
Introduced in 1957, the third generation F-series was a significant modernisation and redesign. Front fenders became integrated into the body, and the new Styleside bed continued the smooth lines to the rear of the pickup. The cab-over F-Series was discontinued, having been replaced by the tilt-cab C-Series. In 1959, Ford began in-house production of four-wheel-drive pickups.
Fourth generation (1961–1966)
Ford introduced a dramatically new style of pickup in 1961 with the fourth generation F-Series. Longer and lower than its predecessors, these trucks had increased dimensions and new engine and gearbox choices. Additionally, the 1961–1963 models were constructed as a unibody design with the cab and bed integrated. This proved unpopular and Ford reverted to the traditional separate cab/bed design in 1964. In 1965, the F-Series was given a significant mid-cycle redesign. A completely new platform, including the Twin-I-Beam front suspension, was introduced that would be used until 1996 on the F-150 and until 2016 on the F-250/350 4x2. Additionally that year, the Ranger name made its first appearance on a Ford pickup; previously a base model of the Edsel, it was now used to denote a high-level styling package for F-Series pickups.
Fifth generation (1967–1972)
Introduced in 1967, the fifth generation F-series pickup was built on the same platform as the 1965 revision of the fourth generation. Dimensions and greenhouse glass were increased, engine options expanded, and plusher trim levels became available during the fifth generation's production run. Suspension components from all 1969 F-Series models are completely interchangeable. A variant of the fifth generation F-series was produced until 1992 in Brazil for the South American market.
Sixth generation (1973–1979)
The sixth generation F-series was introduced in 1973. This version of the F-series continued to be built on the 1965 fourth generation's revised platform, but with significant modernizations and refinements. Front disc brakes, increased cabin dimensions, gas tank relocated outside the cab and under the bed, significantly improved heating and air conditioning, full double wall bed construction, increased use of galvanized steel, SuperCab was introduced in the sixth generation pickup. The FE engine series was discontinued in 1976 after a nearly 20-year run, replaced by the more modern 351 series (Modified) and 400 series engines.
In 1975, the F-150 was introduced in between the F-100 and the F-250 in order to avoid certain emission control restrictions. For 1978, square headlights replaced the previous models' round ones on higher trim package models, such as Lariat and Ranger, and in 1979 became standard equipment. Also for 1978, the Ford Bronco was redesigned into a variant of the F-series pickup. 1979 was the last year that the 460 big block engine was available in a half ton truck.
Seventh generation (1980–1986)
The 1980 F-Series was redesigned with an all-new chassis and larger body; this was the first ground-up redesign since 1965. The exterior styling of the truck was redone to improve aerodynamics and fuel economy. Medium-duty F-Series (F600-F900) were also redesigned; although they shared the cabin of the smaller pickup trucks, the largest version of F-Series now wore a bonnet with separate front wings (like the L-Series). Medium duty Ford F-Series would carry the 1980–86 interior design until 2000 (though pickups were restyled again in 1987 and 1992), with very subtle changes such as window glass and electronics.
In a move towards fuel efficiency, Ford dropped the M-Series engines (the 5.8-liter 351M and 6.6-liter 400 cu in V8s) in 1981, replacing them with the 4.2-liter 255 C.I. and 5.8-liter 351 C.I. Windsor V8 engines from the Panther platform. The 255 V8 was simply a 5.0L, 302 V8 with a smaller bore, built specifically for better fuel economy, but was dropped for the 1982 model year due to being underpowered and having limited demand. For 1982 and 1983, the 3.8L, 232 C.I. Essex V6 was the base engine but was quickly dropped for the 1984 model year. In 1983, Ford added diesel power to the F-Series through a partnership with International Harvester (later Navistar). The 6.9L, 420 C.I. IDI V8 produced similar power output as the gasoline 351 Windsor V8, with the fuel economy of the 4.9L, 300 I6. From this point on (1983-present), the heavier duty f-series trucks (F-250 and above) were usually equipped with the diesel engines as standard horsepower. 1985 was the first year of electronic fuel injection on the 5.0L V8, all other engines following suit in 1988. There was a new "high output" version of the 5.8L Windsor beginning in 1984.
A noticeable change was made to the F-Series in 1982 as the Ford "Blue Oval" was added to the center of the grill, also the Ranger and Custom trims were no longer available. The Ranger name had been shifted onto the all-new compact pickup developed as a replacement for the Courier. The new trim levels were a no-badge base model (essentially the new Custom), XL, a very rare XLS, and XLT Lariat.
1983 marked the final year of the F-100, making the F-150 the lightest pickup available on the market. F-100s and F-150s were virtually identical with the exception of smaller brakes and a 5x4.5 bolt pattern on the F-100 axles, as opposed to 5x5.5 on the F-150. F-100s over a certain GVWR and/or without power brakes did use the F-150 axles. Also, the 1980–83 F-100 was never offered with four-wheel-drive.
1986 marked the final year that the F-150 was available with a 3-speed manual gearbox that shifted via a steering column lever (3-on-the-tree). Incidentally, this was the second-last vehicle in the United States that offered this set up. 1986 was also the last year the Explorer package was available.
This is the first generation of trucks to incorporate amenities such as power mirrors, power windows, and power door locks.
Eighth generation (1987–1991)
The 1987 F-Series carried over the same body style from the seventh generation, yet sported a new rounded front clip that improved aerodynamics, as well as the softening of body lines around the rear of the bed and fender arches around the wheel wells. The interior was also completely redesigned in 1987. The only transmission available on SuperCab models were a four-or five-speed manual (regular cab models were also available with automatic transmission). The Custom trim made a comeback for the eighth generation. In 1988, the 4.9-liter inline-six, 5.8-liter V8, and 7.5-liter V8 engines gained electronic fuel injection. International Navistar also increased the displacement of their 6.9-liter V8 in the same year, resulting in the new 7.3-liter unit. This was also the first year of a five-speed manual overdrive transmission, which included the Mazda M5OD in the F-150s and the heavy-duty ZF5 in the F-250s and F-350s. Four-speed manuals were dropped as standard equipment after 1987, but were available as a customer-ordered option until 1989. In 1989, the C6 three-speed automatic was replaced as the base automatic transmission with the E4OD, a four-speed electronically controlled automatic overdrive unit, though the C6 was still available as an option, mostly in F-250s and F-350s, until 1997. Heavy-Duty models included F-250s and F-350s (along with F-Super Dutys) that were classified as incomplete vehicles only that were produced with no bed, but appeared as tow trucks, box trucks (notably U-Haul), flatbed trucks, dump trucks and other models. Although the F-250s, F-250 HDs (heavy duty), and F-350s were built as a Chassis cab models only from 1987 to 1997, owners can convert the models to pickup trucks. However General Pacheco, Argentina and São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil assemblies were the only places F-250, F250 HD, and F-350 were built and sold as pickup trucks models. Despite being produced only in General Pacheco, Argentina and São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil assemblies (located in South America) F-250s, F250 HDs, and F-350s were shipped from South America to the United States as imports from 1987 to 1997.
Ninth generation (1992–1997)
For the 1992 model year, the body-shell of the 1980 F-Series was given another major upgrade. To further improve its aerodynamics, the forward bodywork was given a slightly lower hoodline, rounding the front fenders and grille; in addition, the changes matched the F-Series with the design of the newly introduced Explorer and redesigned E-Series and Ranger. Along with the exterior updates, the interior received a complete redesign.
Dormant since 1987, the FlareSide bed made its return as an option for 1992. To increase its appeal for younger buyers, the bed bodywork was redesigned, borrowing the sides of the F-350 dual-rear wheel bed (fitted to the narrower F-150 single-wheel chassis). To commemorate the 75th anniversary of the first Ford factory-produced truck (the 1917 Ford Model TT), Ford offered a 75th anniversary package on its 1992 F-series, consisting of a stripe package, an argent colored step bumper, and special 75th anniversary logos. In 1993, the 240 hp SVT Lightning was introduced as a specially-tuned performance truck; over 11,000 were built from 1993 to 1995.
In a trim shift, the XLT Lariat was dropped and combined with the XLT; the XL took over for the Custom trim after 1993 (marking the last usage of the Custom nameplate by Ford). In 1995, the Eddie Bauer trim made its return.
In 1995, the medium-duty Ford F-Series (F-600 through F-800 and all Ford B-Series) were given their first update since 1980. All versions (except severe-service) received a hood redesign which enlarged the grille and moved the turn signal indicators to the outside of the front headlights.
In the second half of 1997, the F-250 HD (heavy duty) was in the same series as the F-350. The body style stayed the same until the end of 1997. The only change of the F-250 HD and F-350 was that they no longer has classic style tailgates, with the stainless steal cap on them which read FORD. The F-250 HD also had some minor changes in trim location, and options available. The 1997 F-250 HD with the 7.3 Powerstroke diesel is also the rarest and most desirable of ninth generation Fords.
Following the introduction of the tenth-generation F-150, the F-250 and F-350 continued into production into the 1998 model year, becoming part of the Ford F-Series Super Duty line as they were replaced in 1999.
Tenth generation (1997–2003)
For 1997, Ford Motor Company made a major change to its F-Series family of trucks as the F-Series pickup line was essentially split in two. During the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, buyers of pickup trucks had increasingly purchased the vehicles for the purposes of personal use over work use. To further increase its growing market share, Ford sought to develop vehicles for both types of buyers. In its ultimate decision, the company decided to make the F-150 as a contemporary vehicle for personal use, while the F-250 and F-350 would be designed more conservatively for work-based customers.
Introduced in early 1996 as a 1997 model, the F-150 was a completely new vehicle in comparison from its predecessor. Similar to the original Ford Taurus of 1986, the 1997 F-150 was developed with a radically streamlined body. Dispensing with the traditional Twin I-Beam front suspension for a fully independent front suspension, the all-new chassis shared only the transmissions with the previous generation. In a major change, the long-running 4.9L inline-6 was replaced by a V6 engine as standard. The 4.6L Modular V8 shared with the Panther cars was optional (with a 5.4L version added in mid-1997); originally developed for use in the F-Series, the Modular/Triton V8 was the first overhead-cam engine ever fitted to a full-size pickup truck.
To improve rear-seat access for SuperCab models, a rear-hinged (curb-side) door was added to all versions. Following its popularity, the SuperCab gained a fourth door for 1999. In 2001, the F-150 became the first pickup truck in its size segment to become available with four full-size doors. Sharing the length of a standard-bed SuperCab, the F-150 SuperCrew was produced with a slightly shortened bed.
During the second half of the 1997 model year, Ford introduced a heavier GVWR version (8800 GVW), bearing the F-250 HD name. It was distinguished by seven-lug nut wheels. The F-250 HD (heavy duty) was in the same series as the F-350 (same body style as the 1992 to 1997 model years;it was still built in South America only).
Following the introduction of the Super Duty for 1999, it was quietly dropped. In 1999, the SVT Lightning made its return, with output expanded to 360 hp; over 28,000 were produced from 1999 to 2003. For 2002, Lincoln-Mercury gained its first full-size pickup truck since 1968 with the introduction of the Lincoln Blackwood, the first Lincoln pickup. Sharing the front bodywork of the Lincoln Navigator SUV, the Blackwood was designed with a model-exclusive bed and was sold only in black. Due to very poor sales, the Blackwood was discontinued after 2002.
In 1998, the F-250 and F-350 pickups were introduced as the 1999 Ford F-Series Super Duty model line. While remaining part of the F-Series, the Super Duty trucks use a different platform architecture, powertrain, and design language, primarily as they are intended for heavy-duty work use. Designed in a joint venture with Navistar International, the medium-duty F-650/F-750 Super Duty were introduced in 2000.
Eleventh generation (2004–2008)
For the 2004 model year, the F-150 was redesigned on an all-new platform. Externally similar to its predecessor, the eleventh generation wore sharper-edged styling; a major change was the adoption of the stepped driver's window from the Super Duty trucks. Regardless of cab type, all F-150s were given four doors, with the rear doors on the regular cab providing access to behind-the-seat storage. Ford also introduced the Triton engines in the variants of the F-150.
From 2005 to 2008, Lincoln-Mercury dealers sold this version of the F-150 as the Lincoln Mark LT, replacing the Blackwood.
In late 2008, the Super Duty trucks were also given an all-new platform. While using the same bed and cabin as before, these are distinguished from their predecessors by an all-new interior and a much larger grille and head lamps. Previously available only as a chassis-cab model, the F-450 now was available as a pickup directly from Ford.
From 2004 to 2006 offered a different bed style as well.
Twelfth generation (2009–2014)
The twelfth generation F-150 was introduced for the 2009 model year as an update of the Ford full-size truck platform. Similar to its predecessor, these trucks are distinguished by their Super Duty-style grilles and head lamps; standard cab models again have two-doors instead of four. The FlareSide bed was continued until 2010, dropped along with the manual gearbox; outside of Mexico, the Lincoln Mark LT was replaced by the F-150 Platinum. A new model for 2010 included the SVT Raptor, a dedicated off-road pickup.
As part of a major focus on fuel economy, the entire engine lineup for the F-150 was updated for the 2011 model year. Along with two new V8 engines, the F-150 gained a new 3.7-Litre base V6 engine, and a powerful twin-turbocharged 3.5-Litre V6, dubbed EcoBoost by Ford. The automatic gearbox is the only option. Other modifications include the addition of a Nexteer Automotive Electric Power Steering (EPS) system on most models.
Thirteenth generation (2015–present)
For the 2015 model year, Ford Motor Company introduced the thirteenth-generation F-150. Without physically changing any dimensions from its predecessor, in the interest of fuel economy, designers reduced curb weight by nearly 750 pounds. In a radical change for a mass-market vehicle, much of the weight reduction stems the change from steel to aluminum in its body structure (the majority of the frame itself remains high-strength steel). With the lone exception of the firewall, all sheet metal used for the F-150 body is aluminum.
Largely previewed by the Ford Atlas concept vehicle at the 2013 Detroit Auto Show, the styling introduced a completely new design language for the Ford F-Series; only the stepped window from the Super Duty was carried over. To prove the durability of the aluminum-intensive design, camouflaged prototypes were entered in the Baja 1000 endurance race, in which the vehicles finished.
To further increase fuel economy, a 3.5L V6 became the base engine with the introduction of a 2.7L EcoBoost twin-turbo V6 alongside the 3.5L version; the 5.0L V8 remained available. The 2015 F-150 is the first pickup truck with adaptive cruise control, which uses radar sensors on the front of the vehicle to maintain a set following distance between it and the vehicle ahead of it, decreasing speed if necessary.
Ford has made several changes to their engine lineup for the 2018 model-year pickup, which Ford has confirmed will be a member of the thirteenth generation. The 3.5L base engine has been replaced with a more efficient 3.3L V6 that boasts the same power as the outgoing 3.5, but promises better mileage. The new 3.3L V6 will be mated to the existing 6-speed transmission. The 2.7L and 3.5L EcoBoost engines, as well as the 5.0L V8 have had minor upgrades and improvements towards power and efficiency, and will all be mated to the new 10-speed transmission. These 3 engines will also all feature the stop/start technology which was previously only available with the 2.7L, further improving mileage across the board.
Ford is also introducing its first diesel engine in an F-150 which they're calling the "Power Stroke" engine. The diesel engine is a twin turbo 3.0L V6 from the "Lion" lineup of engines shared by PSA Peugot Citroën and Jaguar Land Rover. The engine will produce 440 lb-ft of torque and be mated to the new 10-speed transmission, and also feature the stop/start technology.
|19 July 2016|
14-16124 Michael Sansoe v. Ford Motor Co.
United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit
Ford Motor Company appeals the district court's order denying Ford's motion to strike Michael Sansoe and Eric Frazer's complaint pursuant to California's anti-SLAPP statute, arising from a diversity putative class action.
Download 14-16124 Michael Sansoe v. Ford Motor Co. - 267MB - 26:14
|In position to monitor a storm|
Image ID: nssl0370, NOAA's National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) Collection
Location: Nebraska, Big Springs/Brule area
Photo Date: 2010 June 6
Photographer: Robin Tanamachi
View photo of NSSL Chase Vehicle - 820KB
Photo by Filip Mroz on Unsplash
View photo of Ford F-Series Truck in Snow - 752KB
|Date||Document Name & Details||Documents|
|3 March 2008||NHTSA Recall 08E019000 Intercontinental Auto Parts ALG 44/1, Purolator F10024, 1978-1980 Ford Bronco, 1977 Ford Country Squire, 1977-1980 Ford E-Series, 1978-1982 Ford F-Series, 1980 Ford Fairmont, 1979-1980 Ford Granada, 1977, 1979-1980 Ford LTD, 1980 Ford Mustang, 1975 Ford Pinto|
1979 Ford Ranchero, 1977-1980 Ford Thunderbird, 1980 Lincoln Versailles, 1975 Mercury Bobcat, 1977, 1979-1980 Mercury Capri, 1977, 1979-1980 Mercury Colony Park, 1977-1980 Mercury Cougar, 1977, 1979-1980 Mercury Grand Marquis, 1979-1980 Mercury Monarch, 1980 Mercury Zephyr
FUEL SYSTEM, GASOLINE:DELIVERY:FUEL PUMP
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
|Recall Page - 1 page|
|13 January 1994||Ford Motor Company; Receipt of Petition for Determination of Inconsequential Noncompliance||Federal Register: NHTSA (Barry Felrice)|
|6 March 2007||Ford F-Series: Best Seller For February 2007||Anthony Fontanelle|
|24 March 2007||Ford to Recall F-Series Super Duty Trucks||Anthony Fontanelle|
|11 September 2009||2010 Ford Superduty Pickup Promises To Work As Hard As You Do, The||Andy Zain|
|30 April 2016||Ford Announces F-Series Super Duty Trucks Get an Upgrade, Will Be Available for Sale at Ford Country||Ford Country|
|28 December 2016||Ford Motor Company, Receipt of Petition for Decision of Inconsequential Noncompliance||Federal Register: NHTSA (Jeffrey M. Giuseppe)|
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