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Jeep Grand Cherokee

American Government Special Collections Reference Desk

Grand Cherokee
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Wikipedia: Jeep Grand Cherokee

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An SUV produced by Jeep beginning in 1993.

A third generation Jeep Grand Cherokee appears on the cover of the 2016 book Crazy Gran by Gary Botting.

Magazine covers include:
February 2001 Petersen's 4 Wheel & Off-Road (2001 dark red)

History

The following section is an excerpt from Wikipedia's Jeep Grand Cherokee page on 17 May 2016, text available via the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

The Jeep Grand Cherokee is a mid-size luxury crossover SUV produced by the American manufacturer Jeep. While some other SUVs were manufactured with body-on-frame construction, the Jeep Grand Cherokee has always used a unibody chassis.

Development

The Grand Cherokee's origins date back to 1983 when American Motors Corporation (AMC) was designing a successor to the smaller Jeep Cherokee (XJ). Three outside (non-AMC) designers—Larry Shinoda, Alain Clenet, and Giorgetto Giugiaro—were also under contract with AMC to create and build a clay model of the Cherokee XJ replacement, then known as the "XJC" project. However, the basic design for the Cherokee's replacement was well under way by AMC's in-house designers and the 1989 Jeep Concept 1 show car foretold the basic design.

As AMC began development of the next Jeep in 1985, management created a business process that is now known as product lifecycle management (PLM). According to François Castaing, Vice President for Product Engineering and Development, the smallest U.S. automaker was looking for a way to speed up its product development process to compete better against its larger competitors. The XJC's development was aided by computer-aided design (CAD) software systems making the engineers more productive while new communication systems allowed potential conflicts to be resolved faster, thus reducing costly engineering changes because all drawings and documents were in a central database. The system was so effective that after Chrysler purchased AMC in 1987, it expanded the system throughout its enterprise, thus connecting everyone involved in designing and building products.

The Grand Cherokee thus became the first Chrysler-badged Jeep product. Development work for the new Jeep model continued and Chrysler's employees (after the 1987 buyout of AMC) were eager for a late-1980s release date; however, CEO Lee Iacocca was pushing for redesigned Chrysler minivans, thus delaying the Grand Cherokee's release until late-1992 as an Explorer competitor. Unlike the Explorer, the Grand Cherokee utilized monocoque (unibody) construction, whereas the Explorer was a derivative of the Ranger pickup with a separate body-on-frame.

The Grand Cherokee debuted in grand fashion at the 1992 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Michigan. The vehicle that was driven was a Poppy Red Clear Coat 1993 Grand Cherokee ZJ Laredo with a quartz cloth interior and high-back bucket seats. Then Chrysler president Robert Lutz drove Detroit mayor, Coleman Young, from the Jefferson North Assembly Plant on North Jefferson Avenue via a police escort to Cobo Hall, up the steps of Cobo Hall and through a plate glass window to show off the new vehicle. Sales of the 1993 model year Grand Cherokee began in April 1992.

Production of the Grand Cherokee started shortly afterward in the purpose-built Jefferson North Assembly in Detroit, Michigan. European Grand Cherokees are manufactured in Austria by Magna Steyr. The Grand Cherokee "played a significant part in reviving Chrysler's fortunes by moving it into the then nascent market for high-margin sports utility vehicles."

First generation (ZJ; 1993–1998)

The original Grand Cherokee was launched in 1992 as a 1993 model year vehicle in the luxury SUV segment. The "ZJ" models, manufactured from 1992 to 1999, originally came in three trim levels: base (also known as SE), Laredo, and Limited, subsequent trims were added, included Orvis (95–99), TSI (97–99). The base model included features such as full instrumentation, cloth interior, and a standard five-speed manual transmission, while gaining the moniker "SE" name for the 1994 model year. Power windows and locks were not standard equipment on the base trim. The minimal price tag differential resulted in low consumer demand, and as a result, the low-line model was eventually discontinued. Additional standard features included a driver-side air bag and four-wheel anti-lock braking system (ABS). The Laredo was the mid-scale model with standard features that included power windows, power door locks, cruise control, and a leather wrapped steering wheel. Exterior features included medium-grey plastic paneling on the lower body and five-spoke alloy wheels. The Limited was the premium model, featuring body color lower body paneling, and gold exterior accents. The Limited also boasted standard features such as leather seating, heated mirrors, front power seats, a keyless entry system, wood grain interior appliqué, lace style alloy wheels, a driver information center with compass, digitized climate control, and electrochromic rearview mirror, and Jensen brand stereo with multi-band equalizer. By 1996 the option list grew to include heated seats. Standard was the 4.0, with the 5.2 V8 (and 5.9 in 1998) being optional. As with other models. Package groups with the various trim levels included: fog lamps, skid plates, as well as convenience, lighting, luxury, power, security, and trailer towing packages.

When it was first introduced in April 1992 as an early 1993 model year vehicle, the Grand Cherokee only had one powertrain choice: the 4.0 L AMC-derived straight-six engine that made 190 horsepower. This became the "volume" engine for the Grand Cherokee. Transmission choices included a four-speed automatic transmission (early production ZJs used the AW4 – the A500SE (later 42RE) replaced the AW4 during the latter half of the 1993 model year) or an Aisin AX15 manual transmission. Low demand for the manual transmission resulted in its discontinuation after 1994, but European-market ZJs retained it when coupled to the diesel engine (which was unavailable in North America). The drive train choices included rear-wheel drive or four-wheel-drive. In 1995, the engine dropped 5 horsepower to 185 due to new EPA regulations imposed on the 1996 model year.

In 1998, a variant of the top-level Grand Cherokee Limited, the "5.9 Limited" was introduced. Jeep ads claimed it to be the "world's fastest sport utility vehicle". The primary improvements in the 5.9 Limited version included a 245-horsepower 5.9L OHV V8 engine, heavy-duty 46RE automatic transmission, functional heat-extracting hood louvers, unique wide-slot body-colored grille with mesh inserts, special rocker moldings, low-restriction exhaust with three-inch chrome tip, a low-profile roof rack, and special 16" Ultra-Star wheels. The 5.9 Limited also received a 150 amp alternator and a 2-speed electric cooling fan. Other features include a standard 180-watt, 10-speaker Infinity Gold sound system with rear roof-mounted sound bar, standard sunroof, and an interior swaddled with unique "calf's nap" soft leather and fake wood trim. The 5.9 Limited was awarded "4x4 of the Year" for 1998 by Petersen's 4-Wheel & Off-Road magazine. Production of this model was 14,286 units.

Export models produced at the plant in Graz, Austria, were given the vehicle designation of "ZG".

Second generation (WJ; 1999–2004)

The redesigned WJ 1999 Grand Cherokee shared just 127 parts with its predecessor (mostly fasteners). The European model was coded WG. The spare tire was relocated from the side of the cargo compartment to under the floor. (Like the 1998 ZJ, the rear tailgate glass opened separately.) The two heavy pushrod V8 engines were replaced by Chrysler's then-new PowerTech. The new V8 engine produced less torque than the old pushrods, but was lighter, offered better fuel economy, and provided similar on road performance figures (the 23-gallon fuel tank was replaced with one of a 20.5-gallon capacity). The straight-six engine was also updated in 1999. A redesign of the intake manifold added 10 horsepower (7.5 kW). While other Jeep vehicles used the Mopar 5 x 4.5 bolt circle, this was the first Jeep following the 1987 Chrysler buyout to receive a wider bolt pattern: – 5 x 5.

Third generation (WK; 2005–2010)

The all-new WK Grand Cherokee debuted in 2004 for the 2005 model year. It was first unveiled at the 2004 New York International Auto Show. Features available for the first time in a Jeep included Quadra-Drive II four-wheel drive, rear-seat DVD player and optional 5.7 L Hemi V8. The 3.7 L V6 engine replaced the 4.0 L Straight-6.

The design still emphasizes power and luxury, with significant work done on improving noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH). However, for the first time, Jeep also emphasized on-road performance to a similar extent as the cornerstone of its brand, off-road capability.

This newfound emphasis on on-road refinement led Jeep to replace the XJ-era live-axle with leading-arms front suspension (found in the ZJ and WJ) with a new design: an independent double-wishbone setup like that which debuted in the 2002 Liberty. The new Jeep changed its philosophy due to what it perceived as increasing demand in the SUV marketplace for on-road performance and decreasing demand for off-road capability. Although classed as a truck-based SUV, the WK Grand Cherokee has more luxuries of a crossover especially with NVH.

Fourth generation (WK2; 2011–present)

The fourth-generation Jeep Grand Cherokee went on sale in summer 2010 as a 2011 model. It was unveiled at the 2009 New York Auto Show. During development of the WK2 Grand Cherokee, it was used as one of the examples of future products by Chrysler management at the time to convince United States federal regulators in 2009 of Chrysler's future viability in requesting a federal loan, which culminated in the Chrysler Chapter 11 reorganization that same year.

The fourth-generation Grand Cherokee retains its classic Jeep styling combined with a modern and sleek body style. The interior features leather trim and real wood accents, plus Bluetooth and uConnect electronics options. The 2011 Grand Cherokee has won 30 awards for off-road capability, luxury, value, best-in-class, and safety, making it the most awarded SUV ever. Among the awards are: Top Safety Pick for 2011 from the IIHS, listed as a Consumers Digest Best Buy for 2011, Safest SUV in America by MSN Autos, and Truck of the Year for 2011 by The Detroit News.

Like the previous generations, the chassis is a steel unibody. Unlike previous models, the new WK2 features four-wheel independent suspension for better on-road handling. The Grand Cherokee (with the 2011 Durango) WK2 platform uses a Chrylser designed and engineered platform/chassis that Mercedes-Benz later used for the Mercedes-Benz's W166 series. The Chrysler-designed platform/chassis was part of the DaimerChrysler engineering projects that was to launch the new Grand Cherokee with the Mercedes-Benz ML to follow. However, due to the subsequent sale and bankruptcy of Chrysler, the Grand Cherokee launch was delayed and the Mercedes ML launched before the WK2 Grand Cherokee.


Multimedia

DateMedia or Collection Name & DetailsFiles
28 July 2010Detroit Auto Workers Anticipate Obama Visit
Carolyn Presutti, VOA News

Article Page
- 6.2MB - 2:46
29 July 2010Obama Tours Auto Plants to Spotlight Industry Recovery
Carolyn Presutti, VOA News

Article Page
- 5.9MB - 2:34
29 August 20172017 AmericanMuscle Car Show: Make-A-Wish 1995 Jeep Grand Cherokee
Turn 5 Inc./AmericanMuscle

Photo Collection Page
- 19 photos


Photographs

Jeep Grand Cherokee Model Car Photo ©2009 Bill Crittenden
2009 Cedarville Model Car Contest and Swap Meet
March 8, 2009
View photo of Jeep Grand Cherokee Model, 3,784KB
Jeep Grand Cherokee Model Car Photo ©2009 Bill Crittenden
2009 Cedarville Model Car Contest and Swap Meet
March 8, 2009
View photo of Jeep Grand Cherokee Model, 3,714KB
Jeep Grand Cherokee Model Car Photo ©2009 Bill Crittenden
2009 Cedarville Model Car Contest and Swap Meet
March 8, 2009
View photo of Jeep Grand Cherokee Model, 3,940KB
Jeep Grand Cherokee Model Car Photo ©2011 Eli Walczak
View photo of Jeep Grand Cherokee - 167KB
Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 Modified SRT/8
Photo ©2013 Bill Crittenden
2013 Muscles for Muscles Car Show
View photo of Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 - 3.4MB
Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 Modified SRT/8
Photo ©2013 Bill Crittenden
2013 Muscles for Muscles Car Show
View photo of Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 - 3.4MB
Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 Modified SRT/8
Photo ©2013 Bill Crittenden
2013 Muscles for Muscles Car Show
View photo of Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 - 2.9MB
2006 Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 Modified 2006 SRT/8
Photo ©2013 Bill Crittenden
2013 Muscles for Muscles Car Show
View photo of 2006 Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 - 3.9MB
2006 Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 Modified 2006 SRT/8
Photo ©2013 Bill Crittenden
2013 Muscles for Muscles Car Show
View photo of 2006 Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 - 3.5MB
2006 Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 Modified 2006 SRT/8
Photo ©2013 Bill Crittenden
2013 Muscles for Muscles Car Show
View photo of 2006 Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 - 2.8MB
2006 Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 Modified 2006 SRT/8
Photo ©2013 Bill Crittenden
2013 Muscles for Muscles Car Show
View photo of 2006 Jeep Grand Cherokee SRT/8 - 853KB
Chicago O'Hare International Airport Jeep Grand Cherokee Chicago O'Hare International Airport
Photo ©2013 Bill Crittenden
View photo of Chicago O'Hare International Airport Jeep Grand Cherokee - 3.3MB


Documents

DateDocument Name & DetailsDocuments
classified date 1994In-Depth Accident Investigation
1993 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 9.4MB - 149 pages
December 1995On-scene Investigation / Vehicle to Vehicle
1993 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 561KB - 15 pages
March 1997Veridian Remote Air Bag Deployment/Fractured Steering Wheel Assembly Investigation
SCI Technical Summary Report
Subject Vehicle: 1997 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 212KB - 11 pages
July 1997Calspan On-Site Air Bag Non-Deployment Investigation
Vehicle: 1995 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 185KB - 12 pages
July 1997On-Scene / Vehicle to Vehicle
1995 Jeep Grand Cherokee Limited
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 208KB - 15 pages
January 1998On-Site Air Bag Investigation
Vehicle - 1995 Jeep Grand Cherokee Limited
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 1,720KB - 21 pages
May 1998Calspan Limited On-Site Redesigned Air Bag Investigation
Vehicle: 1998 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 113KB - 9 pages
October 1998Remote, Redesigned Air Bag Special Study
1998 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 363KB - 8 pages
classified date 1999Special Crash Investigation Report
Case Vehicle: 1998 Jeep Grand Cherokee Laredo, 4 x 4 4-door SUV
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 61.4MB - 128 pages
classified date 2001Special Crash Investigation Report
Case Vehicle: 1999 Jeep Grand Cherokee Laredo, 4 x 4, 4-door SUV
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 6.9MB - 122 pages
March 2002Remote Child Safety Seat Crash Investigation
SCI Technical Summary Report
Vehicle - 1998 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 314KB - 12 pages
July 2003General Dynamics On-Site Alleged Seat Failure Investigation
SCI Technical Summary Report
Vehicle - 2003 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 513KB - 24 pages
30 July 2003Safety Compliance Testing for FMVSS 124: Accelerator Control Systems
2003 Jeep Grand Cherokee 5 Door MPV
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 1.7MB - 75 pages
4 August 2003Safety Compliance Testing for FMVSS 207: Seating Systems
2003 Jeep Grand Cherokee 5 Door SUV
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 11.1MB - 147 pages
9 September 2003Safety Compliance Testing for FMVSS No. 110(Indicant): Tire Selection and Rims
2003 Grand Cherokee Laredo, MPV
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 1.6MB - 25 pages
classified date 2004Special Crash Investigation Report
Case Vehicle: 1998 Jeep Grand Cherokee Laredo, 4x4, 4-door SUV
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 6.4MB - 131 pages
May 2004Rear Facing Child Safety Seat Air Bag Fatality Investigation/ Vehicle to Object
2003 Jeep Grand Cherokee Laredo
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 1,592KB - 18 pages
July 2004SCI/NASS Combination Rear Occupant Protection Program Investigation
Vehicle - 2003 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 1,325KB - 12 pages
8 April 2005Safety Compliance Testing for FMVSS 201U: Occupant Protection in Interior Impact, Upper Interior Head Impact Protection
2005 Jeep Grand Cherokee 4-Door MPV
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 13.1MB - 189 pages
May 2005Calspan On-Site Certified Advanced 208-Compliant Vehicle Crash Investigation
Vehicle: 2005 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 255KB - 14 pages
14 September 2005Safety Compliance Testing for FMVSS 225: "Child Restraint Anchorage Systems"
2005 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 6.9MB - 89 pages
classified date 2006Special Crash Investigation Report
Case Vehicle: 2004 Jeep Grand Cherokee, 4-door SUV
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 5.9MB - 95 pages
June 2006On-Site Certified Advanced 208-Compliant Vehicle Investigation
Vehicle - 2006 Jeep Grand Cherokee Laredo
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 992KB - 22 pages
February 2007Rollover/Child Safety Seat Investigation / Vehicle to Object
1996 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 2,854KB - 19 pages
August 2007Child Safety Seat Investigation
1996 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 1,251KB - 17 pages
February 2008Child Safety Seat Investigation
2001 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 5,024KB - 30 pages
June 2009Not-in-Traffic Surveillance Calspan On-Site Back Over Incident Investigation
Vehicle: 2001 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 1,418KB - 20 pages
December 2009Calspan On-Site Child Restraint System Crash Investigation
Vehicle: 2000 Jeep Grand Cherokee Laredo 4X4
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 498KB - 14 pages
2011SAFETY RECALL L33: ENGINE BLOCK DEBRIS
Chrysler Group, LLC
NHTSA Recall 11V487000

PDF
- 24KB - 1 page
16 May 2011Safety Compliance Testing for FMVSS 201: Occupant Protection in Interior Impact, Upper Interior Head Impact Protection
2011 Jeep Grand Cherokee Laredo 4X4
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 7.9MB - 170 pages
11 July 2011Safety Compliance Testing for FMVSS 214: Dynamic Side Impact Protection (Rigid Pole)
2011 Jeep Grand Cherokee Laredo 4X4 SUV
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 4.8MB - 116 pages
6 September 2011Safety Compliance Testing for FMVSS No. 114: Theft Protection
2011 Jeep Grand Cherokee Laredo, MPV
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 7.1MB - 31 pages
26 September 2011NHTSA Recall 11V487000
2012 Chrysler 200, 2012 Chrysler Town & Country, 2012 Dodge Charger, 2012 Dodge Durango, 2012 Dodge Grand Caravan, 2012 Dodge Journey, 2012 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Recall Page - 1 page
26 September 2011From: David Dillon, Chrysler
To: Claude Harris, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NHTSA Recall 11V487000

PDF
- 107KB - 4 pages
29 September 2011Rod Bearing Failure
From: Ric Willard, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
To: David Dillon, Chrysler Group, LLC
NHTSA Recall 11V487000

PDF
- 27KB - 3 pages
November 2011Safety Recall L33 - Engine Block Debris
Chrysler Group, LLC
NHTSA Recall 11V487000

PDF
- 4.5MB - 41 pages
17 November 2011NHTSA Identification Number 11 V-487
From: David Dillon, Chrysler
To: Claude Harris, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NHTSA Recall 11V487000

PDF
- 18KB - 1 page
6 January 2012RECALL QUARTERLY REPORT -- QUARTER ENDING 12/31/11
From: David R. Bernier, Chrysler
To: Nancy Lummen Lewis, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NHTSA Recall 11V487000

PDF
- 85KB - 2 pages
4 April 2012RECALL QUARTERLY REPORT -- QUARTER ENDING 3/31/12
From: David Dillon, Chrysler
To: Nancy Lummen Lewis, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NHTSA Recall 11V487000

PDF
- 38KB - 2 pages
6 July 2012RECALL QUARTERLY REPORT -- QUARTER ENDING 6/30/12
From: David R. Bernier, Chrysler
To: Nancy Lummen Lewis, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NHTSA Recall 11V487000

PDF
- 105KB - 2 pages
5 October 2012RECALL QUARTERLY REPORT -- QUARTER ENDING 9/30/12
From: David R. Bernier, Chrysler
To: Nancy Lummen Lewis, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NHTSA Recall 11V487000

PDF
- 39KB - 2 pages
7 January 2013RECALL QUARTERLY REPORT -- QUARTER ENDING 12/31/12
From: David R. Bernier, Chrysler
To: Nancy Lummen Lewis, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NHTSA Recall 11V487000

PDF
- 1.1MB - 2 pages
18 April 2013RECALL QUARTERLY REPORT -- QUARTER ENDING 3/31/13
From: Kristin J. Kolodge, Chrysler
To: Nancy Lummen Lewis, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
NHTSA Recall 11V487000

PDF
- 44KB - 2 pages
event May 2017Special Crash Investigations
On-Site Alleged Unintended Acceleration Investigation
Vehicle: 2006 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 6.8MB - 33 pages
event May 2017Special Crash Investigations
On-Site SKT Guardrail End Terminal Crash Investigation
Vehicle: 2012 Jeep Grand Cherokee
National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

PDF
- 30.5MB - 69 pages


Article Index

DateArticleAuthor/Source
6 February 1998Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect PetitionFederal Register: NHTSA (Kenneth N. Weinstein)
24 February 1998Denial of Motor Vehicle Defect PetitionFederal Register: NHTSA (Kenneth N. Weinstein)
June 9, 20062007 Jeep Grand Cherokee CRD, Soon On The StreetsSarah McBride
4 April 2008New Features With New Jeep Grand CherokeeAnthony Fontanelle
20 November 2014Consumer Advisory: NHTSA Urges Owners of Model Year 2002-2007 Jeep Liberty and 1993-1998 Jeep Grand Cherokee Vehicles to Get Recalled Cars FixedNHTSA
20 March 2015NHTSA Safety Complaint 10695552: 2007 Jeep Grand Cherokeeanonymous
19 June 2015Jeep Grand Cherokee Hellcat is on the Road NowPatrick Rall


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